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CULTIVATION
Cucumber
Cucumis sativus

 

Cucumbers, cucumbers, or cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.; tribe-pumpkin Labuan or Cucurbitaceae) is a plant that produces edible fruit. The fruit is usually harvested when not cooked properly to be a vegetable or refreshing, depending on the species. Cucumbers can be found in a variety of dishes from around the world and contains enough water in it so many cool functions. Cucumber slices are also used to help moisturize the face.

Habitus cucumber weak form of creeping herb or semi-climbing and an annual crops: after blooming and fruiting plants die. Perbungaannya married one (monoecious) with type male flowers and hermaphrodite flowers (hermaphrodite). The first flower produced, usually at the age of 4-5 weeks, is the male flowers. Flowers hermaphrodite flower when next is good growth. One plant can produce 20 pieces, but in cultivation usually limited amount of fruit to produce good fruit size.

The fruit is green when young with yellowish white lines-lines. The more outside of the fruit ripe fruit color changed to pale green to white. Elongated fruit shape like a torpedo. Development of the fruit flesh mesokarp, pale yellow to bright orange. The fruit is harvested when still half-ripe and not ripe seed physiology. A ripe fruit is usually dried and the seeds are harvested, the color black.

Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Cucurbitales
Family: Cucurbitaceae
Genus: Cucumis
Species: C. sativus

Binomial name
Cucumis sativus L.

Image :cucumber

Cucumbers are also known as scientific ataunama cucumber Cucumis sativus, contains 0.65% protein, and carbohydrates 0.1% fat of 2.2%. In addition, cucumbers also contain calcium, iron, magnesium, phosphorus, vitamin A, vitamin B1, vitamin B2 and vitamin C.

Cucumbers (Cucumber) is a seasonal crops that are spreading or climbing by means of a tool holder helical or spiral shaped.

MIND POWER ENGINEERING cucumber

Cue GROWTH
Climate

Adaptation of cucumbers in a variety of climate is quite high, but optimum growth in dry climates. Simply getting sunshine, temperatures (from 21.1 to 26.7) ° C and not much rain. Optimum altitude of 1000-1200 masl. As for the types of Japanese Cucumbers like other types of land to live on the altitude of about 200-800 m above sea level. Optimal growth can be achieved if planted on land that is located at an altitude of 400 m above sea level.

Growing Media
Loose soil, many containing humus, good water system, easy to soak the soil water, soil pH of 6-7.

Land that has been processed or mixed with manure compost as much as 10-20 kg / ha. After that, the beds made with a width of 100 cm and 20-30 cm wide water channel. Long beds depending on the circumstances of the season. If the rainy season, made higher beds for good drainage and aeration, which is 30-40 cm. Meanwhile, if the dry season, measuring only 20-25 cm beds. Terms of growing and cultivation of gherkin cucumbers just as Japanese cucumber cultivation. Which differ only optimal spacing, harvest, and the size of the fruits harvested. Gherkin cucumbers Planting optimum planting distance 60 x 50 cm. Cucumbers can be harvested about 42 days with a size of approximately 6-9 cm or depending on buyer demand. SELECTION OF SEED AND seedbed Seeds Japanese cucumber and gherkin cucumbers are still imported from the country of origin. Before the seed is planted, the media should seedbed prepared first. Media seedbed was a mixture of soil and manure with 7:3 comparison. As a nursery where the media can be used transparent poly bag or plastic bag. Before use, media seedlings were sterilized first with Dithane / Cobox 0.2% clan Furadan / Curater of 15 g/100 kg of media. Although seeds can be planted directly, but to reduce the failure, the seeds should be treated as follows. 1. Seeds soaked for 15 minutes. The seeds that float should be discarded. 2. Seeds which remain submerged again soaked for 24 hours. 3. Furthermore, seeds moved into the folds of a wet towel for 12 hours until going to root out. 4. After going to root out, the seeds can be planted directly in the place that had been prepared. In the rainy season, the seedbed should be given a transparent plastic roof. If cucumbers planted during the dry season, beds can be made in the open. However, in the first few days, beds should be covered with dead leaves. Try to get more sunlight or less 35%. Seedbed soil watered every 1-2 days. If the puck leaves open the seedlings sprayed with Antracol and Cobox (fungicide), Karphos or Hostathion (insecticide), and Agrept (bactericidal) every 2 days. Doses used half of the recommended dosage. PLANTING Planting seeds can be done if the seedlings were 10-14 days old or after having two leaves. Investment depends on altitude. Planting done 2-4 days faster than any decrease in 200 m above sea level. Seedlings will be planted first soaked in a solution of 0.1% Dithane and NPK fertilizer granules were given as much as 3-6 grains / tube. On land that has been made beds scattered basal fertilizer Urea (ZA) 10 g/m2, TSP 55 g / m² and KCl 10 g / m² evenly. Further land was given Furadan or Curater B 5 g / m² plus Dithane Cobox or 0.2%. After that, the planting can begin. Optimum plant spacing is 120 x 40 cm.

In terms of cultivation techniques, actual cucumber cultivation in the northern area is still traditional in nature. But the excess of the farmer / planter Falkirk cucumbers in this area is in terms of intensity of care and fertilization, so that from an area of 1 Ha. they can produce 30-45 tons of local cucumber and 40-50 tons of cucumber hybrid. The high production of cucumbers in this northern region is attributed to the intensity of care, especially the use of pesticides and fertilizers are adequate, as well as land use is very effective, so that in 1 ha. plant population + 40000-50000 plants. This can happen because the size of the beds is only 50-60 cm in width, with a spacing of 25-30 cm for local cucumbers and 30-40 cm for cucumber hybrids. Long beds 10-20 m or according to the size of a rice field or garden plot. The distance between beds 50 -60 cm.

Search locations crop rice planting season usually follows. When planting cucumbers conducted in paddy soil irrigation system with technical or close to water sources, the price of land rent tersebutberkisar between Rp. 500,000.00 - Rp. 700,000, whereas if a dry land / dry are difficult / distant sources of irrigation, the rent is cheaper + USD. 300,000.00 - Rp. 500,000.00 / Ha.

Processing of soil for the cultivation of cucumbers in Donegal is done with the system by making beds wholesale direct. The cost of processing by the piece of land is Rp. 1,400,000.00. Processing per hectare of land or a raised bed will be completed within 5-7 days.

For purposes of this cucumber cultivation of cucumber farmers usually ready with seeds brought from the region (Indramayu and Subang). These seeds had been derived from agricultural stalls that have been derived / conceived again. But some of them were bought from friends / neighbors. For local cucumber seeds, they can sell for Rp. 30,000 - 40.000/liter and bought for Rp. 50,000 - 60.000/liter.

Planting cucumbers in Karawang-Bekasi area is done directly (direct planting) with Portugal. For an area of 1 Ha. needed + 2000 grams cucumber seeds. Planting cucumbers can be done in one day with a workforce of 10 people. Supplies of fertilizer and pesticides are all concerned in the cultivation of cucumber. The farmers who had experienced conscious and know that cucumbers are very sensitive to fertilizer and pest and disease attack, so they do not want to take risk by reducing the need for fertilizers and pesticides on crops timunnya. To obtain optimal results cucumber farmer usually uses some type of fertilizer such as: Urea: 1000 Kg / ha, NPK: 300 kg / ha, SP-36: 200 Kg / Ha, ZA: 200 Kg / Ha, KNO3: 50 Kg / Ha, KCl: 100 kg / ha, leaf Fertilizer: 2.5 lt / Ha, ZPT: 2.5 ml / Ha, Fungicide: 4 Kg / Ha and insecticides: 3 lt / Ha. Use of foliar fertilizer is rarely found on cucumber farmers in the northern region. But for the use of hormones and plant growth regulator is fairly intense, especially into the generative phase. So it is with a very intensive use of insecticides with fungicides which are very helpful in controlling the disease crackle (Downy mildew).
Treatment begins when the crop plants aged 50-10 days. At the age of 5 HST usually farmers do embroidery on the planting holes are empty (not growing) and thinning in the planting hole that contains 3 plants or more. After stitching activities continued with the weeding of grass and soil around the cavity closure planting hole to strengthen the stems erect cucumber. The next activity is pemopokan. Pemopokan intended to cover the grass that grows on top of beds and the cool effects on the growing medium so the roots can grow and develop properly.

All maintenance and harvest activities conducted through a watery ridge


Once completed proceed with the installation pemopokan lanjaran / teturus. Needs lanjaran / teturus is 45000-50000 stems / ha. Price teturus USD. 25.00 - USD. 30.00 / trunk. At 12 DAP fertilizer aftershocks dikocor manner. Fertilizer dikocorkan aftershocks which consists of Urea: ZA: SP-36: DAP: KNO3 in the ratio 1: 1: 1: 1: 1 / 4 or 100 grams of urea + 100 g ZA + 100 grams of DAP + 25 grams of KNO3 dissolved in 10 liters of water. Supplementary fertilizer was done as much as 5-6 times, namely the age of 12 DAP, 15 DAP, 18 DAP, 19 DAP, 22 DAP and 25 DAP. Treatment of other plants and branches are binding lanjaran cucumbers. Spraying insecticides and fungicides from age 10 HST 3-day intervals.

Spraying of foliar fertilizer, insecticides, fungicides and plant growth regulator is usually put together for more efficient use of labor and its implementation are also tailored to the circumstances and age of plants and pests and diseases. Fertilization is then given a dry aftershocks with ditugalkan among the 4 holes or planting beds with only sown in the middle. Dry supplementary fertilizer consists of Urea: SP-36: KCl and NPK ratio of 2: 1 / 2: 1 / 2: 1 is given at the age of 26 HST.

Harvest and Marketing Harvest cucumbers usually can be started at the age of 33-35 days after planting. depending on the level of soil fertility and varieties planted. Cucumber harvesting is done every day for the shape and size of entry in Jakarta wholesale market demand. Size standards in the area of the cucumber fruit panajang Falkirk is 12-15 cm in diameter and fruit from 2.5 to 3.5 cm. Marketing cucumber in Falkirk area can be said is very easy and secure, for cucumber farmers do not need to sell or send their harvest to the wholesale market.

They're just picking fruit and then weighed, after which the brokers / dealers came to bid their cucumbers. But for farmers who borrow capital from the airport, they must be willing to bring their crops to market airport without knowing the price of cucumbers on that day. They only know the price of cucumbers tomorrow or even several days after they were sold by the Bandar cucumber stall (stall owner) in Jakarta Main Market, such as the Parent Market Cibitung, Kramatjati, Kebayoran and others.

The problem faced by farmers cucumber in the northern region, especially Karachi is the absence of a definite standard amount of commission taken by investors. Because in practice, the commission should range between Rp. 50.00 - USD. 100.00 / Kg, the reality could turn into USD. 150.00 - USD. 250.00 / Kg.

With this situation would benefit the farmers become very small, making it difficult for them to increase revenue per unit area. As for the attempt by private capital they also can not afford. This is certainly a difficult dilemma to solve.

Seeing the fact that of course needed the attention of several parties, especially the government through several programs such as Social Safety Net Fund (JPS) and Farm Credit (KUT) is expected to help farmers this cucumber for not constantly trapped and dependent on the capital of the brokers or dealers that there is no definitive standard commission amount, plus bungannya not big enough. Optimal gains will easily be achieved if farmers use capital cucumber pribadikarena they can sell at prices more expensive without the cut commissions from dealers who buy their crops.

Pests and Diseases

Pests and Diseases
Pests and diseases of the cucumber is actually not too much. Eradication of pests and diseases be carried out immediately after the visible signs of attack. How to eradication, among others, by mechanical means (eradiksi / cutting leaves) or by chemical (pesticide spraying). The best treatment is by way of prevention (preventive). Nymphs and adult thrips Pest thrips of the order Thysamoptera equally damaging crops, namely whittle and suck the liquid cell. Sign of the initial damage is when the leaves exposed to sunlight will appear in white spots of the body's own pest. Furthermore, these spots expand and eventually the leaves turn yellow and dry. Pest control is done by mechanical means, ie kill the animals when seen in the stems of plants. Another way is by inserting a solution of insecticide to the nest or carried out spraying insecticide on crops. CRICKET Cricket Ortoptera of the order to attack young gherkin cucumber plants in the field. Cricket is cut plant stems and then cut left in place or brought to the nest. Control together with control of thrips. DISEASE Downy mildew Downy mildew disease attacks (Pseudomonas cubensis Berk, and Curt) started with the black spots on the leaf surface which later changed to yellow. Furthermore, these spots expand into patches of plaid yellow or brown following the mesh size (bone leaves) which connects the branches to the bones of leaves. Another sign is the presence of black mold on the bottom of the leaf. Control and eradication of this disease is done by spraying a fungicide such as Benlate or Dithane-45. Early powdery mildew disease attack is characterized by the presence of fine white powder on the upper and lower leaf surfaces. Furthermore, this fungus spores will be spread evenly on the pieces of leaves, causing leaf yellowing, thickened, stiff, and fold up. Control and eradication of diseases like Downy mildew.


Pest
a. Oteng-Oteng or Flea Kuya (Aulocophora similis Oliver).
Leaf beetle measuring 1 cm with plain yellow wings. Symptoms: leaf damage and eat meat so that leaves a hole; in severe attacks, leaves live bones. Control: Natural BVR or PESTONA.

b. Silkworm Land (Agrotis ipsilon)
This caterpillar is black and attacked the plant, especially the young. Symptoms: Stem plants roots cut around the neck.

c. Fruit fly (Dacus cucurbitae Coq.)
1-2 mm-sized adult flies. Flies attacked young cucumbers to spawn, Symptoms: eat meat and fruit so that the abnormal fruit rot. Control: Natural METILAT.

d. Aphids (Aphis gossypii Clover)
Flea-sized 1-2 mm, yellow or reddish yellow or dark green to black. Symptoms: attack the shoots of plants so the leaves shriveled, kerititing and roll. Fleas also spread the virus. Control: Natural BVR or PESTONA

Disease
a. Blight (Downy mildew)
Cause: Pseudoperonospora cubensis Berk et Curt. Infects the skin of leaves at high humidity, temperature 16-22 ° C and dewy or foggy. Symptoms: yellow stained and moldy leaves, leaf color will be brown and rotten. Control: The Natural GLIO before planting.

b. Flour diseases (powdery mildew)
Cause: Erysiphe cichoracearum. Develop if the dry soil in the dry season with high kelemaban. Symptoms: leaf surfaces and young stems covered with white powder, later changed to yellow and dry. Control: The Natural GLIO before planting.

c. Antraknose
The cause: the fungus Colletotrichum lagenarium Pass. Symptoms: brown spots on leaves. Form of patches rather round or angled-angle and causes the leaves die spotting symptoms may spread to stems, stalks and fruit. When the moist air, amid patches formed pink spore masses. Control: The Natural GLIO before planting.

d. Angular leaf spot
Cause: Pseudomonas lachrymans fungi. Spread during the rainy season. Symptoms: small stained yellow leaves and angled; in severe attacks the entire leaf turned brown stained gray, dry and hollow. Control: The Natural GLIO before planting.

e. Virus
Cause: Cucumber Mosaic Virus, CMV, Potato mosaic virus, PVM; Tobacco Etch Virus, TEV; otato Bushy Stunt Virus (TBSV); Insect vectors are aphids Myzus persicae and Aphis gossypii glov Sulz. Symptoms: The leaves turn dark green stripes and light green, wrinkled leaves, leaf edges curl, stunted plants. Control: to control the insect vector with BVR Natural or PESTONA, reducing mechanical damage, uprooting crops and rotation with pain rather than Cucurbitaceae family.

f. Scabies (Scab)
Cause: fungus Cladosporium cucumerinum Ell.et Arth. Occurs in young cucumber. Symptoms: no wet spots that emit cairam which if dried would be like rubber; when attacking an old fruit, formed a bergabus scabies. Control: The Natural GLIO before planting.

g. Rotten fruit
Cause: The fungus (1) Phytium aphinadermatum (Edson) Fizt., (2) Phytopthora sp., Fusarium sp., (3) Rhizophus sp., (4) Erwinia carotovora pv. Carotovora. Infection occurs in the garden or in storage. Symptoms: (1) Phytium aphinadermatum: wet and rotten fruit when pressed, the fruit broken, (2) Phytopthora: a little wet spot that will become soft and brown and wrinkled; (3) Rhizophus: spotting a bit besah, covered with soft fruit skin fungus , fragile fruits, (4) Erwinia carotovora: fruit rot, destroyed and stinking. Control: to avoid mechanical injury, post-harvest handling carefully, storing in a clean container with a temperature between 5-7 degrees C. And of Natural GLIO before planting.

Harvest
Characteristics and Harvest Time
Local young cucumber fruit to vegetables, pickles or pickle generally quoted 2-3 months after planting, hybrid cucumbers harvested 42 days after planting cucumber Suri harvested after being cooked.

How to Harvest
The fruit is harvested in the morning before 9.00 by cutting the fruit stalk with a sharp knife.

. Period Harvest
Cucumber vegetables harvested 50-10 days depending on variety and size / age of the desired fruit.

 

 

 

 

 

 

peasant greeting
abstracted by

Dwi Hartoyo, SP

 

REFERENCES RAISING cucumber
a. http://teknis-budidaya.blogspot.com/2007/10/budidaya-mentimun.html
b. http://lahanciapus.blogspot.com/2008/06/timun.html
c. http://budidaya-di.blogspot.com/2010/01/budidaya-timun.html
d. http://www.koranplus.com/forum/gardens/849.html
e. http://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timun
f. http://ms.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timun
g. http://dielaagro.multiply.com/journal/item/13

 

 

 

 

 

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