Cucumbers, cucumbers, or cucumber
(Cucumis sativus L.; tribe-pumpkin Labuan or
Cucurbitaceae) is a plant that produces edible
fruit. The fruit is usually harvested when not
cooked properly to be a vegetable or refreshing,
depending on the species. Cucumbers can be found
in a variety of dishes from around the world
and contains enough water in it so many cool
functions. Cucumber slices are also used to
help moisturize the face.
Habitus cucumber weak form
of creeping herb or semi-climbing and an annual
crops: after blooming and fruiting plants die.
Perbungaannya married one (monoecious) with
type male flowers and hermaphrodite flowers
(hermaphrodite). The first flower produced,
usually at the age of 4-5 weeks, is the male
flowers. Flowers hermaphrodite flower when next
is good growth. One plant can produce 20 pieces,
but in cultivation usually limited amount of
fruit to produce good fruit size.
The fruit is green when young
with yellowish white lines-lines. The more outside
of the fruit ripe fruit color changed to pale
green to white. Elongated fruit shape like a
torpedo. Development of the fruit flesh mesokarp,
pale yellow to bright orange. The fruit is harvested
when still half-ripe and not ripe seed physiology.
A ripe fruit is usually dried and the seeds
are harvested, the color black.
Species: C. sativus
Cucumis sativus L.
Cucumbers are also known as
scientific ataunama cucumber Cucumis sativus,
contains 0.65% protein, and carbohydrates 0.1%
fat of 2.2%. In addition, cucumbers also contain
calcium, iron, magnesium, phosphorus, vitamin
A, vitamin B1, vitamin B2 and vitamin C.
Cucumbers (Cucumber) is a seasonal
crops that are spreading or climbing by means
of a tool holder helical or spiral shaped.
MIND POWER ENGINEERING
Adaptation of cucumbers in a variety of climate
is quite high, but optimum growth in dry climates.
Simply getting sunshine, temperatures (from
21.1 to 26.7) ° C and not much rain. Optimum
altitude of 1000-1200 masl. As for the types
of Japanese Cucumbers like other types of land
to live on the altitude of about 200-800 m above
sea level. Optimal growth can be achieved if
planted on land that is located at an altitude
of 400 m above sea level.
Loose soil, many containing humus, good water
system, easy to soak the soil water, soil pH
Land that has been processed
or mixed with manure compost as much as 10-20
kg / ha. After that, the beds made with a width
of 100 cm and 20-30 cm wide water channel. Long
beds depending on the circumstances of the season.
If the rainy season, made higher beds for good
drainage and aeration, which is 30-40 cm. Meanwhile,
if the dry season, measuring only 20-25 cm beds.
Terms of growing and cultivation of gherkin
cucumbers just as Japanese cucumber cultivation.
Which differ only optimal spacing, harvest,
and the size of the fruits harvested. Gherkin
cucumbers Planting optimum planting distance
60 x 50 cm. Cucumbers can be harvested about
42 days with a size of approximately 6-9 cm
or depending on buyer demand. SELECTION
OF SEED AND seedbed Seeds Japanese cucumber
and gherkin cucumbers are still imported from
the country of origin. Before the seed is planted,
the media should seedbed prepared first. Media
seedbed was a mixture of soil and manure with
7:3 comparison. As a nursery where the media
can be used transparent poly bag or plastic
bag. Before use, media seedlings were sterilized
first with Dithane / Cobox 0.2% clan Furadan
/ Curater of 15 g/100 kg of media. Although
seeds can be planted directly, but to reduce
the failure, the seeds should be treated as
follows. 1. Seeds soaked for 15 minutes. The
seeds that float should be discarded. 2. Seeds
which remain submerged again soaked for 24 hours.
3. Furthermore, seeds moved into the folds of
a wet towel for 12 hours until going to root
out. 4. After going to root out, the seeds can
be planted directly in the place that had been
prepared. In the rainy season, the seedbed should
be given a transparent plastic roof. If cucumbers
planted during the dry season, beds can be made
in the open. However, in the first few days,
beds should be covered with dead leaves. Try
to get more sunlight or less 35%. Seedbed soil
watered every 1-2 days. If the puck leaves open
the seedlings sprayed with Antracol and Cobox
(fungicide), Karphos or Hostathion (insecticide),
and Agrept (bactericidal) every 2 days. Doses
used half of the recommended dosage. PLANTING
Planting seeds can be done if the seedlings
were 10-14 days old or after having two leaves.
Investment depends on altitude. Planting done
2-4 days faster than any decrease in 200 m above
sea level. Seedlings will be planted first soaked
in a solution of 0.1% Dithane and NPK fertilizer
granules were given as much as 3-6 grains /
tube. On land that has been made beds scattered
basal fertilizer Urea (ZA) 10 g/m2, TSP 55 g
/ m² and KCl 10 g / m² evenly. Further
land was given Furadan or Curater B 5 g / m²
plus Dithane Cobox or 0.2%. After that, the
planting can begin. Optimum plant spacing is
120 x 40 cm.
In terms of cultivation techniques,
actual cucumber cultivation in the northern
area is still traditional in nature. But the
excess of the farmer / planter Falkirk cucumbers
in this area is in terms of intensity of care
and fertilization, so that from an area of 1
Ha. they can produce 30-45 tons of local cucumber
and 40-50 tons of cucumber hybrid. The high
production of cucumbers in this northern region
is attributed to the intensity of care, especially
the use of pesticides and fertilizers are adequate,
as well as land use is very effective, so that
in 1 ha. plant population + 40000-50000 plants.
This can happen because the size of the beds
is only 50-60 cm in width, with a spacing of
25-30 cm for local cucumbers and 30-40 cm for
cucumber hybrids. Long beds 10-20 m or according
to the size of a rice field or garden plot.
The distance between beds 50 -60 cm.
Search locations crop rice
planting season usually follows. When planting
cucumbers conducted in paddy soil irrigation
system with technical or close to water sources,
the price of land rent tersebutberkisar between
Rp. 500,000.00 - Rp. 700,000, whereas if a dry
land / dry are difficult / distant sources of
irrigation, the rent is cheaper + USD. 300,000.00
- Rp. 500,000.00 / Ha.
Processing of soil for the
cultivation of cucumbers in Donegal is done
with the system by making beds wholesale direct.
The cost of processing by the piece of land
is Rp. 1,400,000.00. Processing per hectare
of land or a raised bed will be completed within
For purposes of this cucumber
cultivation of cucumber farmers usually ready
with seeds brought from the region (Indramayu
and Subang). These seeds had been derived from
agricultural stalls that have been derived /
conceived again. But some of them were bought
from friends / neighbors. For local cucumber
seeds, they can sell for Rp. 30,000 - 40.000/liter
and bought for Rp. 50,000 - 60.000/liter.
Planting cucumbers in Karawang-Bekasi
area is done directly (direct planting) with
Portugal. For an area of 1 Ha. needed + 2000
grams cucumber seeds. Planting cucumbers can
be done in one day with a workforce of 10 people.
Supplies of fertilizer and pesticides are all
concerned in the cultivation of cucumber. The
farmers who had experienced conscious and know
that cucumbers are very sensitive to fertilizer
and pest and disease attack, so they do not
want to take risk by reducing the need for fertilizers
and pesticides on crops timunnya. To obtain
optimal results cucumber farmer usually uses
some type of fertilizer such as: Urea: 1000
Kg / ha, NPK: 300 kg / ha, SP-36: 200 Kg / Ha,
ZA: 200 Kg / Ha, KNO3: 50 Kg / Ha, KCl: 100
kg / ha, leaf Fertilizer: 2.5 lt / Ha, ZPT:
2.5 ml / Ha, Fungicide: 4 Kg / Ha and insecticides:
3 lt / Ha. Use of foliar fertilizer is rarely
found on cucumber farmers in the northern region.
But for the use of hormones and plant growth
regulator is fairly intense, especially into
the generative phase. So it is with a very intensive
use of insecticides with fungicides which are
very helpful in controlling the disease crackle
Treatment begins when the crop plants aged 50-10
days. At the age of 5 HST usually farmers do
embroidery on the planting holes are empty (not
growing) and thinning in the planting hole that
contains 3 plants or more. After stitching activities
continued with the weeding of grass and soil
around the cavity closure planting hole to strengthen
the stems erect cucumber. The next activity
is pemopokan. Pemopokan intended to cover the
grass that grows on top of beds and the cool
effects on the growing medium so the roots can
grow and develop properly.
All maintenance and harvest
activities conducted through a watery ridge
Once completed proceed with the installation
pemopokan lanjaran / teturus. Needs lanjaran
/ teturus is 45000-50000 stems / ha. Price teturus
USD. 25.00 - USD. 30.00 / trunk. At 12 DAP fertilizer
aftershocks dikocor manner. Fertilizer dikocorkan
aftershocks which consists of Urea: ZA: SP-36:
DAP: KNO3 in the ratio 1: 1: 1: 1: 1 / 4 or
100 grams of urea + 100 g ZA + 100 grams of
DAP + 25 grams of KNO3 dissolved in 10 liters
of water. Supplementary fertilizer was done
as much as 5-6 times, namely the age of 12 DAP,
15 DAP, 18 DAP, 19 DAP, 22 DAP and 25 DAP. Treatment
of other plants and branches are binding lanjaran
cucumbers. Spraying insecticides and fungicides
from age 10 HST 3-day intervals.
Spraying of foliar fertilizer,
insecticides, fungicides and plant growth regulator
is usually put together for more efficient use
of labor and its implementation are also tailored
to the circumstances and age of plants and pests
and diseases. Fertilization is then given a
dry aftershocks with ditugalkan among the 4
holes or planting beds with only sown in the
middle. Dry supplementary fertilizer consists
of Urea: SP-36: KCl and NPK ratio of 2: 1 /
2: 1 / 2: 1 is given at the age of 26 HST.
Harvest and Marketing Harvest
cucumbers usually can be started at the age
of 33-35 days after planting. depending on the
level of soil fertility and varieties planted.
Cucumber harvesting is done every day for the
shape and size of entry in Jakarta wholesale
market demand. Size standards in the area of
the cucumber fruit panajang Falkirk is 12-15
cm in diameter and fruit from 2.5 to 3.5 cm.
Marketing cucumber in Falkirk area can be said
is very easy and secure, for cucumber farmers
do not need to sell or send their harvest to
the wholesale market.
They're just picking fruit
and then weighed, after which the brokers /
dealers came to bid their cucumbers. But for
farmers who borrow capital from the airport,
they must be willing to bring their crops to
market airport without knowing the price of
cucumbers on that day. They only know the price
of cucumbers tomorrow or even several days after
they were sold by the Bandar cucumber stall
(stall owner) in Jakarta Main Market, such as
the Parent Market Cibitung, Kramatjati, Kebayoran
The problem faced by farmers
cucumber in the northern region, especially
Karachi is the absence of a definite standard
amount of commission taken by investors. Because
in practice, the commission should range between
Rp. 50.00 - USD. 100.00 / Kg, the reality could
turn into USD. 150.00 - USD. 250.00 / Kg.
With this situation would benefit
the farmers become very small, making it difficult
for them to increase revenue per unit area.
As for the attempt by private capital they also
can not afford. This is certainly a difficult
dilemma to solve.
Seeing the fact that of course
needed the attention of several parties, especially
the government through several programs such
as Social Safety Net Fund (JPS) and Farm Credit
(KUT) is expected to help farmers this cucumber
for not constantly trapped and dependent on
the capital of the brokers or dealers that there
is no definitive standard commission amount,
plus bungannya not big enough. Optimal gains
will easily be achieved if farmers use capital
cucumber pribadikarena they can sell at prices
more expensive without the cut commissions from
dealers who buy their crops.
Pests and Diseases
Pests and Diseases
Pests and diseases of the cucumber is actually
not too much. Eradication of pests and diseases
be carried out immediately after the visible
signs of attack. How to eradication, among others,
by mechanical means (eradiksi / cutting leaves)
or by chemical (pesticide spraying). The best
treatment is by way of prevention (preventive).
Nymphs and adult thrips Pest thrips of the order
Thysamoptera equally damaging crops, namely
whittle and suck the liquid cell. Sign of the
initial damage is when the leaves exposed to
sunlight will appear in white spots of the body's
own pest. Furthermore, these spots expand and
eventually the leaves turn yellow and dry. Pest
control is done by mechanical means, ie kill
the animals when seen in the stems of plants.
Another way is by inserting a solution of insecticide
to the nest or carried out spraying insecticide
on crops. CRICKET Cricket Ortoptera of the order
to attack young gherkin cucumber plants in the
field. Cricket is cut plant stems and then cut
left in place or brought to the nest. Control
together with control of thrips. DISEASE Downy
mildew Downy mildew disease attacks (Pseudomonas
cubensis Berk, and Curt) started with the black
spots on the leaf surface which later changed
to yellow. Furthermore, these spots expand into
patches of plaid yellow or brown following the
mesh size (bone leaves) which connects the branches
to the bones of leaves. Another sign is the
presence of black mold on the bottom of the
leaf. Control and eradication of this disease
is done by spraying a fungicide such as Benlate
or Dithane-45. Early powdery mildew disease
attack is characterized by the presence of fine
white powder on the upper and lower leaf surfaces.
Furthermore, this fungus spores will be spread
evenly on the pieces of leaves, causing leaf
yellowing, thickened, stiff, and fold up. Control
and eradication of diseases like Downy mildew.
a. Oteng-Oteng or Flea Kuya (Aulocophora
Leaf beetle measuring 1 cm with plain yellow
wings. Symptoms: leaf damage and eat meat so
that leaves a hole; in severe attacks, leaves
live bones. Control: Natural BVR or PESTONA.
b. Silkworm Land (Agrotis
This caterpillar is black and attacked the plant,
especially the young. Symptoms: Stem plants
roots cut around the neck.
c. Fruit fly (Dacus
1-2 mm-sized adult flies. Flies attacked young
cucumbers to spawn, Symptoms: eat meat and fruit
so that the abnormal fruit rot. Control: Natural
d. Aphids (Aphis gossypii
Flea-sized 1-2 mm, yellow or reddish yellow
or dark green to black. Symptoms: attack the
shoots of plants so the leaves shriveled, kerititing
and roll. Fleas also spread the virus. Control:
Natural BVR or PESTONA
a. Blight (Downy mildew)
Cause: Pseudoperonospora cubensis Berk et Curt.
Infects the skin of leaves at high humidity,
temperature 16-22 ° C and dewy or foggy.
Symptoms: yellow stained and moldy leaves, leaf
color will be brown and rotten. Control: The
Natural GLIO before planting.
b. Flour diseases (powdery
Cause: Erysiphe cichoracearum. Develop if the
dry soil in the dry season with high kelemaban.
Symptoms: leaf surfaces and young stems covered
with white powder, later changed to yellow and
dry. Control: The Natural GLIO before planting.
The cause: the fungus Colletotrichum lagenarium
Pass. Symptoms: brown spots on leaves. Form
of patches rather round or angled-angle and
causes the leaves die spotting symptoms may
spread to stems, stalks and fruit. When the
moist air, amid patches formed pink spore masses.
Control: The Natural GLIO before planting.
d. Angular leaf spot
Cause: Pseudomonas lachrymans fungi. Spread
during the rainy season. Symptoms: small stained
yellow leaves and angled; in severe attacks
the entire leaf turned brown stained gray, dry
and hollow. Control: The Natural GLIO before
Cause: Cucumber Mosaic Virus, CMV, Potato mosaic
virus, PVM; Tobacco Etch Virus, TEV; otato Bushy
Stunt Virus (TBSV); Insect vectors are aphids
Myzus persicae and Aphis gossypii glov Sulz.
Symptoms: The leaves turn dark green stripes
and light green, wrinkled leaves, leaf edges
curl, stunted plants. Control: to control the
insect vector with BVR Natural or PESTONA, reducing
mechanical damage, uprooting crops and rotation
with pain rather than Cucurbitaceae family.
f. Scabies (Scab)
Cause: fungus Cladosporium cucumerinum Ell.et
Arth. Occurs in young cucumber. Symptoms: no
wet spots that emit cairam which if dried would
be like rubber; when attacking an old fruit,
formed a bergabus scabies. Control: The Natural
GLIO before planting.
g. Rotten fruit
Cause: The fungus (1) Phytium aphinadermatum
(Edson) Fizt., (2) Phytopthora sp., Fusarium
sp., (3) Rhizophus sp., (4) Erwinia carotovora
pv. Carotovora. Infection occurs in the garden
or in storage. Symptoms: (1) Phytium aphinadermatum:
wet and rotten fruit when pressed, the fruit
broken, (2) Phytopthora: a little wet spot that
will become soft and brown and wrinkled; (3)
Rhizophus: spotting a bit besah, covered with
soft fruit skin fungus , fragile fruits, (4)
Erwinia carotovora: fruit rot, destroyed and
stinking. Control: to avoid mechanical injury,
post-harvest handling carefully, storing in
a clean container with a temperature between
5-7 degrees C. And of Natural GLIO before planting.
Characteristics and Harvest Time
Local young cucumber fruit to vegetables, pickles
or pickle generally quoted 2-3 months after
planting, hybrid cucumbers harvested 42 days
after planting cucumber Suri harvested after
How to Harvest
The fruit is harvested in the morning before
9.00 by cutting the fruit stalk with a sharp
. Period Harvest
Cucumber vegetables harvested 50-10 days depending
on variety and size / age of the desired fruit.
Dwi Hartoyo, SP