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MIND POWER
SUGAR CANE
(Saccharum sp)

 

Sugarcane (English: sugar cane) is a plant that is planted to sugar and MSG raw materials. These plants can only grow in tropical area. These plants include the type of grass. Age of plants can be harvested since grown to reach more than 1 year so that annual plant belonging. In Indonesia, many sugar cane is cultivated in Java and Sumatra.

For the manufacture of sugar cane which is harvested by machines squeezed squeezer (press machine) at the sugar factory. After that, juice or sugarcane juice is filtered, boiled, and bleached to become white sugar as we know it. From the process of sugar cane would produce 5%, 90% bagasse and the remainder in the form of drops (molasse) and water.

Dry sugar cane leaves (in the Java language, dadhok) is biomass that has high calorific value. The mothers in rural areas often use dadhok it as fuel for cooking, in addition to saving an increasingly expensive kerosene, fuel is also quick panas.Tidak dadhok but only in the eastern Java area sugarcane (bagasse cane) was also utilized it for fuel ( firewood). Sugarcane leaves (shoots) was also used to feed livestock by some rural communities.

Scientific classification Plant Cane
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Liliopsida
Order: Poales
Family: Poaceae
Genus: Saccharum L.

Species
Saccharum arundinaceum
Saccharum bengalense
Saccharum edule
Saccharum officinarum
Saccharum procerum
Saccharum ravennae
Saccharum robustum
Saccharum sinense
Saccharum spontaneum

 

Figure sugarcane

Surabaya, 28/10 (AFP) - The area of cultivation of sugarcane is predicted to increase on the 2010 season, as the improvement in local sugar prices during the milling season this year.
Deputy Secretary General of the Indonesian Sugar Experts Association (Ikagi) Adig Suwandi in Surabaya, said the slump in sugar prices in the milling season of 2008, has resulted in the total area of sugarcane cultivation has decreased from about 450 thousand hectares to 434 thousand hectares this year, which impacted production target menurunkani 2 , 7 million tonnes, to about 2.6 million tonnes. One effort to increase production is by the expansion of land and planting sugarcane varites with the percentage of high yield. If not possible then the last alternative is to import sugar, but keep in mind that with sugar imports would destroy the domestic sugar price. Strange but true if a foreign country (Thai) can export sugar which obviously cheaper than domestic sugar price, why can not we emulate yes ....!!!!. Thailand's domestic sugar prices will be maintained, the local government to buy sugar cane farmers with the standard price so that farmers are not disadvantaged and excess production of their sugar exports to Indonesia, one of them yes. Government should emulate the Thai government's wise to protect their farmers, so that when there is Over Stok thrown out, of course, the Government of Thailand also benefited. Wow ..... It needs to be replicated hai Indonesian Government policy makers and Gentlemen .......... not only clever in Theory and the edges of farmers blame when mistakes in the decision-makers that only benefits a handful of people close to them. Wow this country really ironic .... sorry for the people of Indonesia, including us .... he he .... he he ....

Sugar industry is one of the agriculture industry which obviously requires integration between agribusiness and agro-industry. Indonesia originally known as sugar exporting countries are large enough and taken into account in the world, but this time it turned into a net importer of sugar in a large enough amount.

Sugar imports in 2000 reached no less than 1.5 million tons to meet domestic demand. In fact, some sources claim that the imported sugar was greater than official figures. This happens because sugar in the domestic production is only about 1.69 million tonnes.

The decline of sugar production in Indonesia is a result of a complex process, both in terms of the social, economic, technology and policy. Comprehensive treatment is needed to overcome the problems of sugar production. Various aspects and the various interests involved in the process of decline in domestic sugar production

The entry of sugar from abroad at a price lower than the price of domestic production led to the national sugar production less competitive. The low technical efficiency and economic efficiency causes the price of domestic sugar production to be expensive. Java Island which was originally a central national sugar production increasingly shifting to the more difficult it acquired sufficient land for sugarcane production area. Land which has properties suitable for sugar cane is more widely used for other commodities is more profitable than sugarcane. Lack of capital and frequently delays in disbursement of farm credit increased the low quality of sugarcane technology implementation.

The low sugar import tariffs that increase the more the decline of national sugar production. Sugar imports to flood just when farmers were harvesting, and mill is being milled. The low import tariffs associated with the letter of intent that created the IMF and the government. Actual import tariff rate is still likely to be improved, as well as other countries are also bound by the IMF, to put rates up to 104%. However, with existing conditions in Indonesia, the imposition of high import tariffs can affect the rampant illegal import of sugar.

Sugar issue is a dilemma considering new national sugar production reached 1.69 million tons, while national demand to reach 3 million tons. Therefore, the existing sugar policy may need to be reviewed and see whether it was appropriate and in favor of farmers and protect the national sugar industry, because in addition to protect sugarcane farmers is also a national asset that must be utilized as much as possible for the prosperity of the people.

For financial institutions that has been extending loans to the sugar industry needs a "security" of its capital, so that needs to be convinced that the money would go back in time. However, there is often unclear how much actual minimum economic scale who deserve a loan, that the result is felt by the farmers but also profitable for the lender. Existing data are often data is built based on the assumption that the theory is less based on reality on the ground so that it can lead to incompatibility between the capital and needs.

Relocation of sugar factories outside Java is one of the alternatives that are considered appropriate, but in fact a conceptualized not sesedehana. The limited land suitability for sugar cane is not easy. Various studies that the efficiency would be achieved if the extensive planting of 20,000 ha which means grinding mill with a capacity of 12,500 tons of cane per day and days of rollers 150 days. According to a survey conducted by the Center for Land and Climate Research (Puslittanak) and Sugar Plantation Research Center (P3GI) found that the potential areas outside Java, which is considered suitable for sugar cane plantations ± 1.2 million hectares, with the spread of Papua (817,000 ha), Maluku (63 000 ha), Riau (54 600 ha), North Sumatra (44,900 ha), Central Kalimantan (36,900 ha), and South Sulawesi (29 200 ha). However, the extent of this potential needs to be corrected with current land use (land use), which is expected to land available not more than 50 percent. Another issue is the relocation of capital to open a sugar factory outside of Java. As an illustration, for a sugar factory with a capacity of 10,000 tons of cane per day required funding of about $ 70 million dollars or 10 times the worth of palm oil mills with a capacity of 40 tonnes fresh fruit bunches per hour.

Deal with the increasingly extreme climate changes
Climate change has become a global phenomenon that can not be avoided anymore. The theory of evolution teaches us, only living beings who are able to adapt to environmental changes was the one who can survive and continue their lives. As a living creature that is expected of managers capable of producing abundant sugar through photosynthesis activity, the existence of superior varieties of sugarcane and adaptive to climate change is needed.
Among sugar producers are very concerned with the research to produce varieties referred to because this is the key to solving problems in production. Climate change at least make the boundary between dry and rainy increasingly blurred. As it is now, by definition count the dry season in August, but was still raining, even in some areas of PG PTPN XI with considerable intensity. Research institutions such as the Indonesian Sugar Plantation Research Center (P3GI) continue to be encouraged to do research there and immediately produce to be spread onto the field. Without the variety of research, future sugar industry will be bleak.

VARIETIES OF SUGAR CANE
Sugarcane varieties in the outline can be divided into 3, namely:
1. Dwarf varieties (early ripe) achieve the optimal cooking <12 months.
2. Variety Medium (cooked mid), reaching optimal cooking at the age of 12-14 months.
3. Variety In (cooking end), to reach optimal cooking at age more than 14 months.

Type of Sugar Cane Home Cooking (<12 months) Cook Middle
(12-14 months)
End Cook
(> 14 months)
BZ 132
PS 57
PS 59
PS 58
PS 56
BZ 148
POJ 3016
PS 41
BL
POJ 2878
PS-86-2
PS-86-10029
PS-88-19432
PS-86-1
             XXX
XXX
            XXX
XXX
XXX
XXX
XXX

 

 XXX


XXX

Seeded varieties today is BL, which is similar to the variety POJ-2878. Both varieties are resistant to mosaic disease and resistant blendok, but rather sensitive BL pohkabung and shoot borer attack. Potential productivity of these varieties BL-rat average bias reached 121.4 quintal per ha of sugar and the highest crystal that can be achieved is 169.2 quintal per ha.
With varieties of BL, the potential on the ecology of wetland seed, sugar cane production on average 1 504 quintal per hectare (the highest 2093 quintal), the average yield of 8.07 percent (highest 8.86 percent) and average crystal production 121 , 4 quintal per hectare (the highest 169.2 quintal).
Tests on dry land sugar cane went fairly average 1250 quintal per hectare (the highest 2112 quintal), the average yield of 7.58 percent (highest 8.25 percent), and the average crystal 97.3 quintal per hectare ( Highest 172.3 quintal). Even in keprasan patterns, varieties BL also showed promising results. From the trial produced an average cane 1222 quintal per hectare (the highest 2012 quintal), the average yield of 7.81 percent (highest 8.74 percent), and the results of crystal average 94.5 quintal per hectare (highest 152, 1 quintal)

Land Type Average sugarcane production

(Quintal per hectare)

Average sucrose content

 

The result of the average crystal

(Quintal per hectare)

Sawah

1.504 (max. 2.093)

8,07 % (max. 8,86 %)

121,4 (max. 169,2)

Tegal

1.250 (max. 2.112)

7,58 % (max. 8,25 %)

  97,3 (max.   97,3)

Pola Keprasan

1.222 (max. 2.012)

7,81 % (max. 8,74 %)

  94,5 (max. 152,1)

Sugarcane seedlings used should be of good quality. Cultivation of sugarcane seedlings cultivated through several levels of nurseries are respectively from the Main Nursery (KBP), Grandma's Nursery (KBN), Parent Nursery (KBI), and Flat Nursery (KBD). By planting in stages, the quality of seedlings planted in the garden about Cane Milled (KTG) for the better because of one level of nursery experience to the next level of selection process.

Potential results of Some Sugarcane Varieties Excellent

NO
VARIETY / STRAIN
YIELD (%)
RESULTS
(Ton / ha)
1 POJ 3016
14
150
2 PS 86-10029
9
140
3 PS 92-3092
9
140
4 Triton
9
125
5 BZ 148
9
120
6 PS 81-1321
9
120
7 BZ132
9
80
8 PS 89-20961
9.5
140
9 PS MD 7
9.5
130
10 PS 85-21470
9.5
120
11 PS 88-19432
9.5
120
12 PS 85-18135
9.5
105

Source: P3GI (processed)
Type of sugar cane is often grown POY 3016, PS 30, PS 41, PS 38, PS 36, PS 8, BZ 132, BZ 62, etc..

Although the development of sugarcane in eastern Indonesia is relatively new, but the PT PG Gorontalo managed to find a new clones and will be proposed to be removed as the seeds of community development.

PT PG Gorontalo is one of the Sugar Factory (PG) in Sulawesi and the only one in the province of Gorontalo. PG, in addition to build a garden to produce sugar production, is also active in breeding to produce superior quality clones. Three varieties of its findings with the name of GTO 1, GTO GTO 2 and 3 will be released as a seed proposed for construction.

PT PG Gorontalo was carrying out observation data collection related to menyusulan proposal for the release of varieties. Implementation of the orientation of varieties has been started since 2007 in 3 (two) locations, namely, Saripi and Gandaria. From the research results are expected to obtain data with productivity, quality keprasan grip strength and resistance to environmental and penganggu organisms attack plants.

Based on the results of these observations in mind if the GTO 1 including the types of initial cook until the middle. At harvest the first year of production of sugarcane milled (TG) GTO 1 can reach 91.24 ton / ha cane milled (TG). While the GTO 2 get into the class of early ripe, with production reaching 90.53 anyway / ha of cane milled (TG). And the GTO 3 ripe beginning with production potential of sugarcane milled (TG) 74.07 tons / ha.

For harvest in year 2, GTO 1, the results of 77.40 tons / ha of cane milled (TG), GTO 2 74.85 tons / ha of cane milled (TG) and GTO 3 79.11 tons / ha of cane milled (TG .) Meanwhile, in the year to 3 decreased to 51.42 cane milled (TG) and 51.58 and 47.42 tons / ha of cane milled (TG).

Unlike many varieties ditanaman in Java such as PS 80-1649, 79-208 PS who experienced peak production in year 2, GTO tends tertinggil production at first harvest. Interestingly to harvest the first year of production GTO 1 and 2 beyond the ditanaman Lawang Bulu production at the same location with the GTO which is 57.31 tons / ha of cane milled (TG).

Besides excellent production potential, the type GTO has a resistance to major pests of sugarcane, one of which sugar cane borer. Where ketahananan against pests is one indicator to determine whether a superior varieties.

PT PG Gorontalo has proposed this as the third seed varieties coached. If released is expected to PG. Gorontalo to meet the needs of seed cane farmers in the Eastern region, especially in the Province of Gorontalo.

A good cane seedlings are old enough seedlings (5-6 months), pure (not mixed with other varieties), free from pests and diseases generally do not damage the composition of the grains fisik.Pada from Nursery Flat (KBD) for Sugarcane Plantation Milled (KTG) is 1: 8, from 1 ha KBD cane produced sufficient seed for 8 ha of KTG for wetland and 1: 3 for dry land.
Basically, nursery management is similar to the milling of sugar cane plantation land preparation up to harvesting (cutting). In the nursery is not done pengkletekan in order to reduce evaporation after the cut and protect the buds either during maintenance or during transportation. Commonly used dose of fertilizer is 800 kg of ZA, SP-36 200 kg, 200 kg of KCl per ha

Sugar cane cultivation is the most appropriate match cultivation of sugar cane agro-climatic condition, namely climate, soil and fertility tofografi. In addition, the successful cultivation of sugar cane is determined also by the use of supporting facilities such as labor and use of equipment that will support the management of sustainable agriculture. More specifically, success is determined by adjusting the cultivation of sugar cane sugar cane suitability of climatic conditions, cane suitability of soil fertility, suitability cane with tofografi management, compliance management of sugarcane on the basis of limited manpower, thereby necessitating the application of mechanized equipment and suitability of cane towards sustainable agriculture.

Based on water needs in each phase of growth, monthly rainfall is ideal for planting sugar cane is 200 mm / month in 5-6 months, respectively - joined, 125 mm / month at 2 months of transition and less 75 mm / month in 4-5 months of consecutive respectively. According to Oldeman climate types, the zone is best to plant sugar cane is the climate type C2 and C3. In its development into dry land than the two types of climate there are some land with a climate type that can be cultivated for sugar cane with technological inputs are B2, C2, C3, D2, E3. Land to be developed for the growth of sugarcane with soil and well drained light enough B1, C1, D1 and E1.Kemasaman soil (pH) is best for sugar cane crop is in the range of 6.0 to 7.0 but still able to grow in the range of pH 4 , 5 - 7.5. Soil fertility (nutrient status), based on research results P3GI to determine the suitability of land for sugar cane crop with the criteria of total N> 1.5, available P2O5> 75 ppm, available K2O> 150 ppm and the saturation of Al <> 4 months, the optimal planting time at the end of the dry season to early rainy season is mid-October until planting time can also be at the end of the rainy season and early dry season (pattern II) with mild soil condition, bedwetting can be processed during the season. In wet areas (dry months = 2 months) the best sugar cane planting in the early dry season.

In general cultivation of sugarcane can be divided into two systems, namely reynoso and dry land sugar cane. Reynoso system used in the implementation of wetland largely manually. While dryland sugarcane cultivation techniques performed mechanization and irrigation is highly dependent of rainfall or water suplisi just in time critical period. Both cropping systems of the above will we review here at length.

Raising Cane Dryland:

Land Preparation
Land preparation is an activity to prepare the land where sugarcane grows so that the physical and chemical soil conditions into sugarcane root growth medium. These activities consist of several types implemented in stages according to the chronological.

In principle, preparation of land for new crop (PC) and plant new bongkaran (RPC) is the same but for the PC field preparation activities can not be carried out intensively. This was caused by a patch of garden layout, topography and soil structure at the newly opened area is still not perfect so that the activities of machinery / equipment in the field are often disrupted. In the area still have the rest - the rest of the stem / root that may disrupt operations in the field machine. Plot was made with a size of 200 mx 500 m (10 ha) which is limited by the production of road and street gardens.

Piracy
Piracy I aim to turn the soil and cut the rest - the rest of the wood and vegetation are still left early. The equipment used was Rome Harrow 20 discs with a diameter of 31 inches is drawn with 155 HP Bulldozer. Early piracy activities starting from the far left side of the plot, though reaching a depth of 25-30 cm and the working capacity of 0.8 hours / ha, so for a garden plot (± 10 ha) it took 8 hours of engine operation. Piracy is evenly distributed throughout the cultivated area with a depth of more than 30 cm and the direction of pirated crosses about 450 rows of sugarcane crop.

Piracy II held approximately three weeks after the hijacking I cut perpendicular to the direction of the piracy I and if a minimum depth of 25 cm. The equipment used is Disc Plow 3-4 disc diameter of 28 inches and tractor 80-90 HP.

Fuel Waste
Waste fuel activities aim to facilitate the operation of equipment in the logged Bundled and Loose Cane. If the processing of the first land use Harrow Rome, then this activity is not necessary. Burning of waste carried out after dry garbage and stuff has to opposite direction with the wind direction. Work capacity depending on the thickness of the trash. Bundled thick garbage logged Cane (green) is 0.15 HK / ha and thin garbage logged Bundled Cane (fuel) is 3.00 HK / ha.

Destruction of soil or Penggaruan
Penggaruan aims to destroy chunks - chunks of soil and level the soil surface. Penggaruan implemented uniformly in all areas by using a tool Baldan Harrow pulled by tractor 140 HP.

In the area of RPC, penggaruan goal is to destroy chunks - chunks of land piracy results, chopping on and off the stump and shoots of sugar cane. Penggaruan performed on the entire area and intersect with the direction of pirated bootleg. Tractor tractor used was 120 HP and tools Baldan Harrow with working capacity 1.15 ha / hr.

Root Collection
The collection is an activity of collecting residual roots - wood waste which is taken up due to piracy I, II and making plant plot, carried out manually by the labor contract. Roots and the rest - the rest of the wood is collected and stacked with a distance of 10-15 meters and then burned in the area.

Flow Making Plant
Making the flow of planting is an activity to prepare the seed cane. Chronology of planting made use Wing Ridger with more than 30 cm depth and distance from center to center is 1.30 meters.
Making grooves planting carried out after fixing stake. Tractor runs follow the direction of planting stake so that the flow can be straight or curved to follow the contour. Directions kairan should be a little cross with a slope of land, plots and facilitate easy drainage on cane transport implementation. On sloping areas, kairan direction is determined in accordance with the direction of the slope of the plot (2% slope), while on land with a slope of more than 5% made terrace bangkun (Contour Bank). Work capacity is about 1 ha / hr.

Cultivation
In principle, preparation of seedlings planted on dry land area equal to that grown on a farm. However, because conditions are too dry eye is sometimes also used four mules. When planting sugar cane in dry land consists of two periods, viz.

Period I
Toward the dry season (May-August) in the region - to 7-month wet areas and wet areas are namely 5-6 wet months, or in areas with moist soil. But it may also be given additional water for this period.

Period II
Toward the rainy season (October-November) in the medium and dry area that is 3-4 months wet.

Needs to be planted seedlings was 11 eyes grow per meter distance between plants. Also, to avoid a costly embroidery. Seedlings planted with eye position as well and arranged end to end (nguntu stinky). How these investments vary according to condition of land and seed availability, please note, in general, water demand in dry land depends on rain, so the possibility of large buds will die. Therefore, with over-lapping or double row, who lives next door buds are expected to replace him.
How to planting sugar cane can be done in the following way: the seeds that have been transported using the cart diecer on the mound for easy in acquiring them, then planted the seeds evenly in accordance with the distance between the plant and covered with thick soil seed itself, for the first crop on dry land are usually tend child is slightly less than rice field soil (reynoso), so the number of seeds per juringan cultivated more than wetland (± 80 my), and if at the time of planting rainfall is too high, cultivated cultivation with glatimongup (seeds less visible).

 

Raising Cane Fields

In general, the cultivation of sugar cane fields reynoso implemented with the system, namely a sugar cane cultivation system that is designed to wetlands, so we need a channel (gutter) to regulate ground water.

Preparation of land and soil management
In the system of land reynoso opened with a unit area of 1 hectare as principal. Then created the opening with a longitudinal channel (got poor) and the transverse channel (gutter poor). Area of one hectare divided into 10 plots (tanks) which is limited by poor gutter and got lucky. Making this got totally carried out manually.

Making the planting hole (juringan)
In the system created manually reynoso juringan with a length of 10 m and width center to center (PKP) 1.10 m, resulting in an acquired 1400 hectares of planting hole. But if the soil more fertile juringan number fewer than 1,400 made pie. Juringan made as deep as 40 cm for later roots to develop properly. Quality juringan very influential on subsequent plant growth.

Cultivation
Seeds used in the paddy field could be seeds or seedlings rayungan mules. Generally digunkaan seeds with 2 eyes to maintain the certainty grew. In one meter juringan planted 5-6 seeds cuttings. The ideal planting time for the sugar cane fields are in May - June, so that when the harvest month of July-September crop is ripe enough and have a high weight of sugar cane.

Planting of seedlings grown for seed eyes facing sideways. If the eye is facing upwards so the seeds will sprout first appears on the surface of the soil rather than seed eyes facing downward. The condition, caused by the time required by the bud to reach the soil surface becomes two times longer, in the calculation of the distance alone is clearly more distant to reach the soil surface resulting in uneven growth and shoot growth impaired.

Stitching
Stitching is planting seedlings to replace sugar cane does not grow, both in new plants or plant sugarcane keprasan in order to obtain the optimal population. Implementation of stitching for seed mule done 2 weeks and 4 weeks after planting, while for seed rayungan performed 2 weeks after planting.

Stitching done on mule line 2-3 eye as much as two pieces and placed in rows of plants that had been drilled previously. If the stitching fails, re-stitching must be immediately implemented.


MAINTENANCE

Addition of Land in SekitarTanaman
Addition of soil around the plant aims to close the plant and strengthen the trunk so that the growth of saplings and stems is more robust growth. In wetland pembumbunan performed three times during the life of the plant. Implementation pembumbunan done manually or with mechanical spring.

On dry land penggemburan pembumbunan well done with an activity that aims to control weeds, menggemburkan and flatten the land, decided rooting especially sugarcane ratoon cane and assist aeration in the root zone.

Pengemburan on plant equipment is required primarily to control weeds. The instrument used was the Tyne cultivators. Penggemburan conducted on plants aged 45 days after planting (prior to fertilization II) with a depth of 20 cm and done only once per growing season.

For ratoon crop needed a tool that can help menggemburkan soil and control weeds. Applications carried out two times in one growing season. The instrument used for the first application is Terra Tyne and the second is the Sub Tiller performed after fertilization II. By Terra Tyne, though at least 20 cm depth, while the Sub Tiller minimum depth of 40 cm.

Peel
Peel is an activity to remove old leaves made of sugar cane manually. Klentek goal is to stimulate the growth of stems, bark harden, preventing the collapse of sugar cane, and prevent fires. This activity is generally performed on reynoso system in Java. For dryland sugarcane klentek not done. For that in one searchable selection of varieties that leaves dry out if exposed to wind. As a consequence of dry land sugar cane to be burned if it will be cut down. It has also become dry land sugarcane varieties criteria, namely fireproof.

SUGAR CANE collapse
Sugarcane stem collapsing or sloping need tied, both cross two or four cross. Ros - ros sugarcane, which consists of one row of plants, together with a clump - clump from a row crop on his side, so the shape of crosses.

Fertilization
The recommended dose of fertilizer for sugar cane crop dry land first (TRIT I) is 8 my ZA, 2 and 3 me my SP36 KCl per hectare with the application 2 times. Fertilization first performed as a fertilizer at planting time basis with the third dose of ZA and the SP 36 and KCl. Fertilizing 2 done when the plant was about 1.5 months at the start of the rainy season with a 2 / 3 dose of ZA.

Fertilizer application is done by mengalurkan shore plants and then covered with soil. Applying fertilizer with the help of hand tractors have been developed especially for the opening and closing the flow as well as the addition of soil around the plant cane. The instrument used is chissel Plow hand drawn by tractors.


Weed Control
On dry land weeds more diverse and more dangerous. Weeds - weeds dominant that a strong competitor who cause harm consists of broad leaf weeds and vines, weeds and narrow leaf-tekian puzzle. Broad leaf weeds and vines made up of Cleome ginandra, Emilia sonchifolia, Boreria alata, Amaranthus dubius, Spigelia anthelmia, Commelina elegans, Mikania micrantha and Momordica charantia. Consist of narrow leaf weed Digitaria ciliaris, Echinochloa colonum, Eleusine indica, Dactylocta aegyptium and Brachiaria distachya while the puzzle is the class of weed Cyperus rotundus.

In practice, weed control is divided into the control of chemical, mechanical and manual. For reynoso system, more dominant control is done manually. Meanwhile, on dry land more common chemical weed control that can be divided into three namely pre Emergence (pre growth), late pre Emergence (initial growth) and post-Emergence (after growth). Herbicides are used presented in the table.

The type and dose of Herbicides Used

Time Applications

Herbicide

Active ingredient

Dose

Pre Emergence

Karmex

DMA

Diuron

2,4 D Amin

2,50 kg/ha

1,50 kg/ha

Late Pre Emergence

Karmex

DMA

Amexon/Gesapax

Diuron

2,4 D Amin

Ametrin

1,50 kg/ha

1,50 lt/ha

1,50 lt/ha

Post Emergence I

Amexon/Gesapax

DMA

Gramoxon

Sanvit

Ametrin

2,4 D Amin

Paraguat

Surfaxtan

2,00 lt/ha

0,75 lt/ha

0,50 lt/ha

0,50 lt/ha

Post Emergence II

Gramoxon

Paraguat

2,50 lt/ha

Pre-grown weed control (pre Emergence) is a weed control conducted at the time of weeds and sugar cane crops have not grown. Held on 3-5 days after planting. Herbicide application carried out by using the Boom Sprayer who have work 12 meters wide (8 lines) are pulled by small tractors 80 HP. Operating speed of about 1.52 km / hour.

Pre Late Emergence is weed control carried out when weeds are growing with 2-3 leaves and sugar cane crops have germinated. Late pre Emergence implemented because of delays in the application of pre Emergence, while post-Emergence held on when weeds are growing and are usually carried out 1-2 times. Post Emergence applied manually with a hand sprayer / knapsack sprayer.

Mechanical weed control is done by using the Tyne Tyne cultivators and Terra. Held at pengemburan soil. Control is implemented at the time the plant was 45 days after tanam.Pengendalian weeds manually carried out by labor using simple tools, implemented at the time kondisitanaman sugar cane is still in the stage sensitive to herbicides, weeds are dominated by creeping weeds, weed population is only spot - spot, availability of adequate manpower and herbicides are not available on the market. Capacity weed control work differently depending on weed control made.

PEST AND DISEASE OF SUGAR CANE

PEST OF SUGAR CANE

Control of pests and diseases in sugarcane cultivation aims to prevent further spread of pest / disease on sugar cane plantations. It is very closely related to one of the efforts to increase the productivity of sugarcane. Some common pests that attack include: sugarcane shoot borer (Triporyza vinella F), sugarcane stem borer (Chilo oirocilius and Chilo sachariphagus), and uret (stigma Lepidieta F). Sugarcane shoot borer (Triporyza vinella F) symptoms; the bone tunnel in the mother leaves gerekan, gerekan a straight alley in the middle of the young shoots of plants until the vertebra below the growing point, the point of death grows, young leaves curl and die. Each bar contains a tail borer. Prevention; use borer-free seedlings, planting resistant varieties, maintaining cleanliness of Glagah crops, crop rotation with rice / crops. Biological control is done by the release Trichogama sp. In the form of eggs, called pale. Chemical control is done by giving 20 grains granular Furadan 3G/tanaman, Furadan 3G applications to the soil 25 kg / ha.

Sugarcane borer (Chilo supresalis and Chilo sachariphagus) symptoms patches - white patches on the leaves of the former gerekan outer skin is translucent, inner hallway on midrib gerekan the tunnel gerekan on segment-segment, growing point died so young leaves wilt and die. One bar is usually more than one drill. Prevention, choose a free seed borer, planting resistant varieties, maintaining cleanliness of the garden, and crop rotation. Control: the release Trichogama sp. 12,000 -40 000 head / ha, the release of Diatraephaga strintalis townsend (Fly Jatiroto) as much as 30-60 animals per hectare, the spraying of Thiodan 35 EC 3 l / ha or 15 WSC Asodrin 51/ha.

Uret (Lepidieta stigma f) symptoms; withered crops, dried leaf and then dies, the base of the stem are injured former digerek and rooting around there uret. Prevention; sugarcane crop rotation with rice, and pulses. Control: uret arrest and ladybugs, sowing insecticide blue Suscon 140 G 28 kg / ha.

The other pests that are generally available: white lice, rats, armyworm, but his attacks are relatively small so that adequate control with garden sanitation. Some areas of sugar factories under its control are still prioritizing the environmental sanitation, natural enemies, and use of varieties resistant to all pests, while the use of chemicals is rarely done because the level of his attacks - average is still below 5%.

DISEASES OF SUGAR CANE
Several kinds of diseases that usually attack at the sugar factory areas, among others, smut, disease pokah bung, mosaic disease, diseases of yellow stain, but that gets attention is Ratoon Stunting Desease disease (RSD) caused by a virus. Symptoms are the stems of sugarcane to be a little shorter and smaller than healthy plants, when cut sugar cane crop looks orange or pink on the bottom of the book. Can control using resistant varieties, cutting tools with deinfektan Lisol 10% or with hot water treatment on seed with a temperature of 500 C water for 2 - 3 hours. Attack diseases that have attacked were still below 5%, so that actions are mostly done with garden sanitation and use of resistant varieties.

Fusarium diseases Pokkahbung
The cause of fungal Gibbrella moniliformis. Alerts leaf chlorosis, leaf midrib is not perfect and growth is retarded, the joints bent and slightly flattened and occur from the leaf to stem rot. Spraying with 2 tablespoons of Natural GLIO + 2 tablespoons granulated sugar in the spray tank 14 or 17 liters in young leaves every week, pengembusan copper lime powder (1: 4: 5)

Dongkelan Disease
The cause of fungal Marasnius sacchari, the bias affects the weight and the yield of sugarcane. Symptoms, sick old plant suddenly, dried leaves from outside to inside. Control by way of drying and drying soil, must be maintained, transmit Natural GLIO since the beginning.

Pineapple disease
Caused by fungi Ceratocytis paradoxa. Attacking the seeds that have been cut. On site (cut) cut, there is a red color which is mixed with black and disseminate smell like pineapple. Seeds were soaked with sugar cane and Natural GLIO NASA POC.

Blendok Disease
Caused by the bacterium Xanthomonas albilincans first appeared at the age of 1.5 to 2 months after planting. Klorotis leaves will dry up, usually from a leaf and usually the leaves will fold along the lines earlier. If the leaves attacked by severe, entire leaves striped green and white. Soak seeds in hot water and POC NASA for 50 minutes and then sun dried. Use Natural GLIO early on before planting to localize the attack.

HARVEST SUGAR CANE

Implementation of the sugarcane harvest includes several major activities, namely Assessed results of planning based on analysis of preliminary cutting cane maturity and Tabang haul.

Assessed Results
Assessed results conducted to assess the results to be obtained nantainya cane so that they can plan how long grinding days, how much labor to prepare and how much supporting material in the plant to be supplied. Assessed generally carried out 2 times that in December and February. Assessed done by calculating the cane with the sampling system and used the formula

Y = Amount bt / m pie x Qty pie / ha x height x weight bt bt / m Where.,


Y = outcome of sugarcane per hectare Assessed
Qty bt / m pie = the calculation of the number of stems per m cane pie
Qty pie / ha = number juringan per ha (which is on the field)
Bt = Height measured to the point of fracture (± 30 cm from top)
Weight bt = stem weight per square meter obtained from the previous year's data

Harvesting
Harvest conducted in the dry season is around April to October. This is related to ease transportation problems of the area to plant sugar cane and sugar levels will reach optimum maturity on kering.Kegiatan harvesting season begins with the preparation phase performed at least three months before the harvest begins. Preparation phase includes the estimated production of sugarcane, the manufacture of cutting programs, determining the maturity of sugarcane, hiring contractors and energy harvesting, preparation for cutting and transporting equipment, and facilities and infrastructure preparation for cutting.

In order to determine the optimal maturity period of sugarcane and also to estimate the exact time of harvesting sugar cane, cane maturity analysis conducted (Maturity Test). Analysis of sugarcane maturity conducted three times with intervals of 2 weeks (a round), when the plant turns eight months. The event was started by making an example of plants that begins, stem samples determined at least 15 feet from the edge and 30 rows of line edge. Plant samples are marked to facilitate subsequent sampling. Each time the analysis takes 15-20 rod or two clumps of cane, then a head count of the number and height measuring rod, and grinding to obtain sugar cane. Next was measured percent Brix, pol and purity of each sample. Data obtained pol mapped on sugarcane maturity maps that will be used as information for the location of the sugar cane harvest is feasible.

Priorities logging done by considering factors other than maturity, ie the distance from the garden factory, ease of transportation, safety cane, plant health and labor factors.

Implementation Cutting
Used two methods of harvesting of green cane (Green Cane) and sugar cane burning (Burn Cane). Method of green cane is cut sugar cane in the condition without any pretreatment, whereas sugar cane burning fuel is done before cutting for easier harvesting and reduce unnecessary waste. Sugarcane Java without fuel, while outside Java, particularly in Lampung ± 90% done with bakar.Tebang done in three harvest systems namely Bundled Cane (sugarcane belt), loose Cane (sugarcane dust) and Chopped Cane (chopped cane.) Implementation in the field still dimominasi cutting by hand, because in terms of quality remains better than the cutting machine.

Bundled Cane (Cane Tie)
Felling is carried out manually, either at the time of harvesting and loading of sugar cane into the truck. Loading / transporting sugar cane from the area to plant dilkasanakan start at 5:00 to 22:00 pm by truck (or any tub los baknya). Trucks used consisted of a small truck with carrying capacity 6-8 tons and large trucks with payload capacity 10-12 tons. When loading the cane into a truck in the condition of land is not wet, the truck entered the area and the path of the truck did not cut the cane row. Travel truck from the area to the plant in accordance with a predetermined route with a maximum speed of 40 km / jam.Pembongkaran cargo carried in the Cane Yard (cane shelters before milling) after weighing, by using concrete poles (Cane Stacker) or directly into the table sugar ( Direct Feeding).

Cane Loose (Sugarcane dust)
Cut loose cane is harvested semi-mechanical system. Harvesting sugar cane carried out manually while loading sugar cane to the trailer or truck to use Grab Loader. Demolition carried out in a shelter cane sugar cane (Cane Yard) directly into table sugar (Feeding Table).

Loose cane harvesting using the 12: 1, meaning that every 12 lines cut and stacked into one pile, carried by two people. Piles of sugar cane is placed on the line to 6-7, while the garbage on the line to 1 and 12. Logging should be razed to the ground and rubbish has been dragged into the plant should be no more than 6%.

Chopped Cane (Cane Count). Chopped sugar cane harvesting system implemented using a machine tool Cane Harvester. Logging system is used as a Roller Stay or helpers to meet the delivery guota cane.

Cane Harvester For optimum operation conditions are required relatively flat areas, conditions are not many sugar cane that collapsed, the net areas of the rest - the remaining wood / stump, not many creeping weeds, patch cutting in intact conditions of about 10 ha and soil conditions are not wet.

Freight carried out by using the existing truck baknya (truck box), it is associated with timber harvest Cane Harvester shaped piece with a length of 20-30 cm. During the unloading, cutting sugar cane with Cane Chopped should be prioritized, sugar cane directly accommodated at the table

YIELD OF SUGAR CANE
The process of cane maturity is a process that runs from segment to segment which kemasakannya level depends on the respective segments. Sugarcane that has reached mature age, state sugar levels along the stem uniform, except in several sections at the top and base of the stem.
Try to keep the current yield of sugarcane harvested at the optimum position around August or depending on the type tebu.Tebu 10 months old will contain saccharose 10%, while the age of 12 months can reach 13%.

Sugarcane Harvesting next
- That to grow back the former sugar cane that has been cut, both ex-milled sugar cane or sugar cane seedlings (KBD).
- Garden which will be cleaned of debris must be cut logged ago. Prior mengepras, better soil is too dry in the watered first. Kepras plot - plots of sugarcane in sequence. After pour SUPER NASA must be cut (same dose as above). Five days or a week after must be cut, and made the cultivation of irrigated crops (jugaran) as shaded to-1 and the cleaning of grass - grass.
- NASA POC Spray and HORMONIK at age 1,2 and 3 months with a dose like in the next atas.Pemeliharaan same as the first sugar cane planting.

Sugarcane Yield High Yield?

CROSS opinion on the issue of flowering and its impact on productivity and yield of sugar cane still continues to this day. Some say the flowering cane positive impact on sugar production. The reason is, when it entered the flowering phase physiologically ripe cane so that when the harvest will be obtained a high yield. Conversely, there is an opinion flowering disadvantage because since the time of the initiation of the vegetative growth of sugarcane has been stopped so that productivity will decline tebunya.
In practice, the majority of practitioners and sugar cane farmers get into the group that believes flowering and lower income due to adverse tebunya weight decreased. They do not like sugar cane varieties are flowering, although these varieties are high yielding and high yield potential.
This evidence is one reason why the area of cane milled at this time more dominated by middle and cook cooking varieties that generally end no flowering 'or rarely flowering. In contrast, less-developed varieties of early ripe for this type of sugarcane flowering generally dense. Unbalance the composition and the proportion of the acreage of sugarcane varieties mature early, middle and end is one of the causes of low cost recovery in recent decades. Therefore, this paper tries to address the issue of flowering sugarcane and factors influencing it. With the hope assessment fellow practitioners and sugarcane farmers are proportional to the problem of flowering.

Flowering talent
Judging from the genetic aspect, grouping and / or use of the term 'varieties of flowering' and 'varieties do not bloom' on the sugar cane crop is less precise, whereas the appropriate term is 'gifted dense flowering' and 'talented flowering rarely'. Because, in fact, in addition to all kinds of talented cane flowering, also on a sugar cane that are categorized as gifted rare flowering can suddenly turn into lush flowering. Why?
There are at least three things that affect whether or not heavy flowering of sugarcane, which are: talent (genetics), age and environment. Judging from the talent in the previous section explained there is a talented kind of sugarcane flowering bushy or vice versa. Age cane that allows these plants to flowering is = 4 months or an adult (mature). One characteristic of an adult was visually segmented rod tebunya have at least 4 segments. Meanwhile, the environmental factors that stimulate flowering, there are two, namely a suitable environmental conditions or 'in accordance with the wishes of sugarcane' and extreme environmental conditions that could threaten its sustainability. In a suitable environment to grow the sugar cane will bloom heavily, otherwise the condition is rarely seized with sugarcane flowering until very rare.
The main environmental factors that stimulate flowering of sugarcane is a long day = 13 hours, the humidity is high (= 90%), lower temperature or below normal and small daily amplitude (<5oC), which took place in a row more than 1 week. In addition, nutrient-rich growth environment also spur flowering sugarcane phosphate. Conversely, the extreme environmental conditions that encourage the flowering of sugarcane, which occurs water stress - either drought or excess water drained poor growing environment, as well as malnutrition and K. N

REJECTION OF SUGAR CANE flowering
Proportion composition between varieties of sugar cane planting area ripe early, middle and end of a relatively balanced, as well as cutting the right time ie on the degree of maturity is a key factor in obtaining optimum yield and high sugar results. Actually, the concept of culture has been understood by practitioners in particular the sugar industry and sugarcane farmers. However, the majority opinion that the cane sugar industry players flowering will reduce the cane and the income of a barrier to the development of sugarcane varieties mature early. As a result, milled sugar cane plantation is dominated by varieties of ripe middle and end that has the potential for high weight without regard to the potential yield or quality. The attitude of 'denial' toward the development of sugarcane varieties mature early and the emergence of a tendency to prefer the types of cane that talented high weight and lack of attention to quality is not without cause. This phenomenon is a result or a negative impact on the policy of 'yield' average 'or not the application of individual yield measurement system as a whole. This is an obstacle effort to organize the varieties to improve the quality of sugarcane, especially in the early period of milling. In addition, the low yield was also caused by the use of performance benchmarks of a sugar mill worker (PG), which is based on achieving a high weight of sugarcane plantations under its management. Therefore, in order to be successful effort to organize the variety and composition of the varieties of cooking early, middle and end can be balanced it needs no change 'paradigm' in the sugar industry, namely from the 'search for sugarcane as much' changed to 'look for sugar as much as possible '. Achieving such high sugar than can be obtained by increasing the weight or increase in quality (yield). Despite efforts to improve the quality of sugar cane can also be done by using cane ripeners or substance hyper maturity (ZPK), but how to approach the cultivation of the most 'effective', cheap and secure environment is through the arrangement of varieties by developing varieties mature early. Therefore, for this paradigm change does not stop at the level of discourse is the paradigm shift should be followed by two policies, namely: the application of measurement systems that drive yield improvement of the quality of cane, and changes
in setting performance benchmarks PG officer.

Flowering 2008 ?
One of the factors that encourage the long-day flowering of sugarcane is about 13 hours or more. In Indonesia, the long day took place when the sun's position at the southernmost tip of the equator is at about mid
December to mid January. This is in accordance with the results of the study authors that the initiation of flowering of sugarcane, especially in Java, starting in the second week - the third in December. Therefore, if in the period of the climatic conditions support, such as, among others, a lot of overcast and rain intensity increased so radisasi sun is reduced, decreased daily temperature or below normal and the air humidity increases will spur the initiation of flowering so that the percentage increased flowering cane. What about the flowering of sugarcane this year? Based on climatic data in the centers of sugarcane in Indonesia is known that the beginning of the rainy season generally occurs in about month of November - December 2007. In addition, between mid-December 2007 and mid-January 2008 in several centers of sugar cane in Java is found the intensity and number of rainy days has increased significantly. Based on these data it is possible in the year 2008 will increase the number of flowering.

PARADIGM CHANGES NEEDED
All kinds of sugarcane genetically gifted flowering. Therefore, the problem of flowering in sugarcane commodity should be accepted by the sugar industry 'legowo' as something 'given'. The existence of species flowering sugarcane varieties can be used to restructure in order to improve the quality of the raw material of sugarcane (BBT), especially at the beginning of milling period, and to support yield improvement programs. Planting sugar cane-flowering species can be synergized with the spraying program to accelerate the maturity ZPK sugarcane because sugarcane flowering species are generally more responsive to treatment ZPK so that will be obtained a better yield. Nevertheless, the idea to improve the quality of BBT and increase the yield by including the type or bushy flowering varieties of sugarcane varieties in structuring the program will stop until at the level of discourse alone, when the program was not followed by a paradigm shift in the sugar industry, namely from the 'search for sugarcane as much as possible 'to' seek sebanyakbanyaknya sugar '. The new paradigm will be realized if the quality of BBT and yield increases. However, to achieve maximum results much sugar is through improved quality and yield are not likely to be realized if not followed by policy change in the measurement of the yield and the change in setting benchmarks for assessing the performance of the sugar factory workers,
especially on the plant. Finally, the sugar industry players ready to make changes that paradigm by utilizing sugar cane as a tool for structuring flowering varieties and increase yield?

Greetings farmer
abstracted by
 
Dwi Hartoyo, SP


REFERENCES
http://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tebu
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http://www.koran-jakarta.com/berita-detail-terkini.php?id=8264
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