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CULTIVATION
RICE CROP
(Oryza sativa L.)


Rice is one of the most important crop in civilization. Although primarily refers to the type of crop cultivation, rice is also used to refer to some kind of genera (genus) the same, commonly referred to as wild rice.

World rice production ranks third of all cereal crops, after corn and wheat. However, rice is the main carbohydrate source for the majority of the world's population.

With scientific classification:
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Angiospermae
Order: Poales
Family: Poaceae
Genus: Oryza
Species: O. sativa Image of Rice crop

Common characteristics

                  

Included in the rate of paddy grains or Poaceae (synonym: Graminae or Glumiflorae.) Annual herb, rooted fibers; stem very short, rod-like structure formed from a series of mutually supporting leaf midrib; perfect leaves with midrib straight, lancet-shaped leaves, color light green to dark green, veined leaves are parallel, covered by short hair and rarely; flowers arranged compound, branched panicle type, called a floret flower unit, located in one seated on panikula spikelet; kariopsis fruit or grain type that can not be distinguished where the fruits and seeds, nearly round to oval shape , size 3 mm to 15 mm, enclosed by palea and lemma that in everyday language is called chaff, the dominant structure is endospermium who eat people.

HISTORY OF RICE PLANT

Including the genus Oryza L. Rice covering approximately 25 species, distributed in tropics and sub-tropical regions such as Asia, Africa, America and Australia. According to Chevalier and Neguier rice comes from the two continents Oryza fatua Koenig and Oryza sativa L. originated from Asia, while other types of rice are Oryza stapfii Roschev and Oryza glaberima Steund originated from west Africa.

Rice is now a cross between Oryza officinalis and Oryza sativa f spontania. In Indonesia in the first rice crop of dry land area cultivated with field systems, eventually people are trying to consolidate its business by way of irrigating basil areas of less rainfall. Rice plants that can grow well Indica is tropical, while Japonica diusakan many sub tropical areas.

 

DISTRIBUTION AND ADAPTATION

Origin of a bowel of rice cultivation is estimated to come from the Ganges River valley area and the Brahmaputra River and from the Yangtse River valley. In Africa, Oryza glaberrima rice grown in tropical west Africa.

Rice currently widespread throughout the world and grow in almost all parts of the world that has enough water and air temperature is warm enough. Rice likes moist soil and muddy. Some experts suspect, rice is the result of evolution from ancestral plants that live in the swamp. This opinion is based on the type of rice that live in the swamp (can be found in several places on the island of Borneo), the high rice requirement for water at some stage of life, and the existence of specialized vessels in the roots of rice that serves the air (oxygen) to the roots.

GROWING CONDITIONS

Rice plants can live either in areas of temperate contains a lot of heat and water vapor. Good rainfall - average 200 mm per month or more, with the distribution for 4 months, the desired rainfall per year is about 1500 to 2000 mm. A good temperature for rice plant growth 23 ° C. High places suitable for paddy ranged between 0 - 1500 m asl.

Good ground for the growth of rice plants is the fraction of wetland that contain sand, silt and clay in certain comparisons with the necessary water in sufficient jurnlah. Rice can grow well in soil upper layer thickness between 18 -22 cm with a pH between 4 -7.

GENETIC IMPROVEMENT AND VARIETIES

A set of rice genome consists of 12 chromosomes. Because rice is a diploid plant, each cell has 12 pairs of chromosomes of rice (except sex cells).

Rice is a model organism in plant genetics studies because of two reasons: its importance for mankind and the relatively small size of the chromosome, which is 1.6 ~ 2.3 × 108 base pairs (base pairs, bp) (Source: Gramene.org site). As a model plant, rice genome has been sequenced, as well as the human genome. The results of rice genome sequencing can be viewed at NCBI site.

Rice breeding has been going on since humans cultivated rice. The result of this action is the knowledge of a variety of local races of rice, such as rajalele from Klaten or cianjur Pandanwangi of Cianjur. People also succeeded in developing upland rice (upland rice), which does not require inundation or swamp rice, which is able to adapt to the swamp water depth changes. In other countries also developed various types of rice (see the diversity of rice).

However, breeding new rice systematically carried out since the establishment of IRRI in the Philippines. Since then, various types of rice with different qualities successfully developed in a planned manner to meet basic human needs.

In the 1960's rice breeding entirely directed at improving the results. The result is rice 'IR5' and 'IR8' (in Indonesia was adapted to 'PB5' and 'PB8'). Although the results are high but many farmers refused because it was not tasty (inflammation). In addition, the brown plant hopper pest outbreaks in the 1970s. Tens of thousands of crosses and then proceed to produce cultivars with high yield potential and resistance to various pests and diseases of rice. In 1984 Indonesia had won an award from the United Nations (FAO) since managed to increase rice production for a period of 20 years to change from the world's largest rice importer into the country self-sufficient in rice. Achievement of this, unfortunately, can not continue. Currently, Indonesia again became the world's largest rice importer.

The presence of biotechnology and genetic engineering in the 1980's allows improving the quality of rice. A number of research teams in Switzerland developed a transgenic rice that can produce toxins for pest-eating grain in hopes of reducing pesticide use. IRRI, in collaboration with several other agencies, assemble "golden rice" (golden rice) that can produce pro-vitamin A in rice, which is directed to the alleviation of vitamin A deficiency in developing countries. A team of Japanese researchers are also developing rice that produces the cholera toxin for bacteria [1]. It is expected that the resulting rice paddy can be an alternative cholera immunization, particularly in developing countries.

Since the late 20th century developed hybrid rice, which has a higher yield potential. Due to the high cost of manufacture, this type cultivar sold at a price more expensive than rice cultivars that are assembled by other methods.

In addition to improving yield potential, rice breeding targets include plants that are more resistant to various pests of plants (OPT) and pressure (stress) abiotic (eg drought, salinity, and acid soils). Breeding is aimed at improving the quality of rice is also done, for example by assembling cultivars containing carotene (provitamin A).

LEADING RICE VARIETY

RICE VARIETIES
ADVANTAGES
IR 48
115 days of harvesting, production of 5 to 7.2 tons / ha. Resistant to brown plant hopper type 1 and type 2, resistant to leaf blast and tungro virus resistant
IR 64
Age 115 days of harvest, the production of 5 tons / ha, taste delicious rice, brown plant hopper resistant type 1 and type 2, resistant to dwarf grass
IR 65
Harvest age 110 days, of 4.5 - 5 tons / ha, a sense of glutinous rice, brown plant hopper resistant type 1 and type 2, resistant green leafhoppers, and tungro virus resistance
IR 74
Harvest age 110 days, of 4.5 - 5 tons / ha, a sense of glutinous rice, brown plant hopper resistant type 1 and type 2, resistant green leafhoppers, and tungro virus resistance
Fatmawati
120 days of harvesting, production of 6 tonnes / ha, tasting rice, bacterial blight disease resistance type 4 and 23-25% amylose content
Sintanur
120 days of harvesting, production of 6 tonnes / ha, tasting rice, brown plant hopper pest resistant type 1 and type 2. Type is regarding to utuk irrigated with height <500 m above sea level.
Batang Samo ( KL 77 )
Harvest age 98-104 days, the potential production of 10.5 tonnes / ha, the rice inflammation, lodging resistant
Batang Kampar ( KL 76 )
Harvest age 90-98 days, production of 9.9 tons / ha dry unhusked, Flavor rice inflammation, resistance collapsed, and the resistance loss.
Hibrindo R-2
Age harvest 115-140 days, the production of 9.24 tons / ha, amylose content from 17.4 to 21.4%, tasting rice and resistant to collapse and fall resistant
Tukad Balian
Age 110 days, production of 4.0 to 7 tonnes / ha, tasting rice, resistant to tungro virus
Yuwono
Age harvest 110-115 days, producing 9 tons / ha, tasting rice, brown plant hopper pest resistant type 1 and type 2; slightly resistant to brown plant hopper type 3
Rojolele
115 days of harvesting, production of 4.2 tons / ha, tasting rice, fragrant, and amylose content of 21% and lasting loss
Winongo
Age harvest 115-120 days, the production of 5-9 tons / ha, taste delicious and very fluffier rice, amylose content of 19-20%; resistant to brown plant hopper type 1 and 2, resistant to bacterial leaf blight type 4
Citarum
Age 130 days, production of 4 to 4.5 tons / ha, taste delicious rice, brown plant hopper resistant type 1, is resistant to dwarf grass and resistant to tungro
Cisadane
Harvesting no data, Production of 4 to 5.5 tons / ha, taste delicious rice, brown plant hopper resistant type 1 and 2 and resistant to green leafhoppers.
Cisantana
Age 118 days of harvest, the production of 5.8 tons / ha (5-7 tons / ha dry husked rice milled), tasting rice, lodging resistant, and very good at an altitude of <500 m above sea level and irrigated areas
Inpari - 1 *
Production of 10 tons / ha, early maturing, resistant to bacterial leaf blight and quality of good quality
Inpari-2 *
Production of 7.3 tonnes / ha, hold the brown planthopper and bacterial leaf blight resistant
Inpari 3*
Production of 7.5 tonnes / ha, brown plant hopper resistant, resistant to bacterial leaf blight, and good quality
Inpari - 4 *
Production of 8.8 tonnes / ha, resistant to brown plant hopper, bacterial blight resistance
Inpara-1 *
Production of 6.2 tonnes / ha, swamp rice varieties, tolerant to Al and Fe metal content
Inpara-2 *
Production of 6.4 tonnes / ha, swamp rice species, tolerant of metal Al, and Fe
Inpara-3 *
Production of 5.6 tonnes / ha, immersion resistant
Bestari ( Benih Super Batan RI ) **
Production reached 11 tons / ha, brown plant hopper pest resistant biotypes 1 and 2, including biotype 3, and leaf blight disease resistant strain III, and IV strains, and suitable for the region 000-700 m above sea level.
Atomita-1 **
Produce 4.5 to 5.0 tons per hectare of dry milled grain
Antomita 2, 3, 4 **
Increasing production rates up to 7 tons per hectare of dry milled grain
Bestari
Production could be 11 tons / ha
Padi gogo Situgunting **
Production of 9 tons / ha
Cilosari, Merauke, Woyla, Kahayan,
Mayang, serta Mira-1
( ** )
production of 5 tons / ha

* New seed varieties of rice that was released in 2008 Presidential ( Klik here )
** Results of superior varieties riles BATAN

Rice cultivation
Rice is cultivated in order to get maximum results in height with the best quality possible, to obtain results in line with expectations then, the plants will be planted should be healthy and fertile. Healthy plants are plants that are not attacked by pests and diseases, no nutrient deficiency, both of nutrients needed in large quantities and in small quantities. While fertile plants are plants that fixation and growth of its development is hampered, either by seed or environmental conditions.
Paddy Fields
Cultivation technique is very necessary to get results in line with expectations. This should begin from the beginning, ie since done the nursery until the plants can be harvested. In the process of plant growth should be maintained until the fruit is good, especially should strive to avoid the attack of plant pests and diseases that are often lower production
1. Seedbed
Creating a nursery is the first step of rice farming. Preparation requires a seedbed preparation as well as possible, because seeds in the nursery will determine the growth of rice, therefore seeds should really get attention, so hope to get a healthy rice seeds and fertile can be achieved.
a. Use of seed
· Certified
· Seed superior
· Seed needs 25-30 kg / ha

b. Land preparation for seeding
· Soil should be fertile
· Sunlight
· Irrigation
· Supervision

c. Processing soil seedbed candidate
· Dry Nursery
· Wet Nursery
· Nursery dapog system
· Dry Nursery

Dry seedbed is usually performed on crumb lands, many of the rainfed lowland areas. Dry soil seedbed should be done well, namely:
a. Land cleared of grass hay clan remnants are still left behind, so as not to disturb the growth of seedlings.
b. Hijacked or hoeing soil deeper than what is done on wet seedbed, for the roots of seedlings can be able to enter the soil more deeply, so it can absorb more nutrients.
c. Furthermore, the soil raked
The area where the land is narrow seedbed can be done with a hoe, which is basically soil management aims to improve soil structure, so the soil becomes loose.

Nursery beds Size:
a. The length of beds: 500 -600 cm or according to need, but it is necessary that the beds are not too long
b. The width of beds: 100 -150 cm
c. High beds: 20 -30 cm

Between the two beds adjacent ditch, measuring 30-40 cm wide. Making this ditch intended to facilitate:
a. Sowing seeds and seedlings revocation
b. Maintenance dipersemaian seeds include:
· Weeding
· Irrigation
· Fertilization
· Eradication of pests and diseases

Seedbed sought more than 1 / 25 broad fields to be planted, the use of seeds in dry seedbed more than wet seedbed.
Seedbed WET

The difference between dry and wet seedbed lies in the use of water. Seedbed moist, since the beginning of the cultivation of land has need of a pool of water. The function of standing water:

a. The water will dissolve the soil
b. Water can be deadly nuisance plants (grass)
c. Water can be used to eradicate insect seed
Land that has been enough to obtain a pool of water will become soft, this soft soil that has been cultivated with the plow and harrow 2 times respectively. However, prior to processing must be done soil dike repair first, and then divided according to the purposes of the rice fields. Area seedbed used 1 / 20 of the planting area to be planted.

DAPOG SYSTEM

In the Philippines have known how to seeding with dapog system, the system has been practiced in Bantul district in the Village Pendowoharjo, Sewon.

How to seeding with dapog system:

a. Seedbed preparation, such as on wet seedbed
b. Petak will ditebari seeds covered with banana leaves
c. Then the seed sown on banana leaves, so the growth of the seed can absorb food from the pistil institutions
d. Every day in banana leaves pressed down little by little
e. Water entered little by little until quite up to day 4
f. At the age of 10 days in banana leaves rolled up and moved kepersemaian new or where planting paddy fields

Sowing

Treatment as an effort of preparation, seeds soaked in water beforehand for the purpose of:
a. Selection of poor seed, float, float should be discarded for the process tisiologis
b. Tisiologis process means a change in the seed that eventually rapid seed germination. Absorbed or ingress of water into the seed will accelerate the process tisiologis

Soaking seeds

a. Seeds soaked in water for 24 hours, then cured (previously drained or dietus)
b. The duration of curing
c. Seed cured for 48 hours, for ripening the seeds germinate inside.

Implementation of sowing seeds

Things that should be considered in sowing the seeds are:

a. Seeds were germinated with a length of approximately 1 mm
b. Seeds are spread evenly
c. The density of seed should be the same

Maintenance seedbed

a. Irrigation

· On a dry seedbed

Watering in dry nursery is done by pouring water keselokan who are among the beds, so there is seepage so that plant growth can take place, although in this case is often covered by plant pests or weed. Water plays inhibit or even stop the growth of nuisance plants / grass. Please note that the number of water and kedalamanya are factors that hamper the development of seedlings, especially on wet nursery done.

· In wet seedbed
Watering on wet nursery done in the following way:
o beds flooded for 24 hours
o After genagan it lasts for 24 hours, then water until keadakan macak minus-macak (nyemek-nyemek), then the seeds began to be deployed
o The reduction of water in the nursery until the water situation became macak-macak, was supposed to be:
o The seed can be spread evenly and easily attached to the ground so that roots easily get into the ground.
o The seeds do not rot due to water genagan
o Facilitate the seeds to breathe / take oxygen directly from air, making the process more rapid germination

b. Fertilization dipersemaian
Usually the plant nutrients needed in large quantities is of macro nutrients. While artificial fertilizers / inorganic such as Urea, TSP, etc. given before seed dispersal dipesemaian, if necessary, given the growth regulator. Provision of growth regulators on seed ahead of the seeds dispersed.

RICE FIELD SOIL PREPARATION AND PROCESSING
Treatment aims to change the state soil of agricultural land with a specific tool to obtain the composition of the soil (soil structure) are desired by the plant. Processing of wetland consists of several stages: a. Cleaning
b. Cultivation
c. Piracy
d. Penggaruan

Cleaning
o-ditch ditch needs to be cleaned
o Straw that there needs to be cleared away for composting
o Pencangkulano Repair embankment and plowed the rice fields that were difficult

Hijack
o Breaking the land into blocks of land
o Reversing land and plant grass (hay) and eventually rot
o The process of decay with the help of micro-organisms present in soil

Harrowing
o Flatten and destroy the soil clumps
o At the time of harrowing should keaadan wet rice fields in
o Investment made easy
o long as income and expenditure raked channel is closed for mud not water washed away the water out
o The surface of the land being flat
o The water that seeps down into less-Waste plant or grass will be immersed
o Penggaruan done repeatedly will benefit
o Flatten the distribution of fertilizer and manure set

PLANTING
In rice seedlings, must be considered before are:
a. Land preparation
b. Age of seedlings
c. Phase planting

Land preparation
o Land that has been processed with a fine, finally ready for planting rice seedlings.

Age of seedlings
o When the age of seeds is enough according to the type of rice, bib terse but soon it can be moved by how to pull seedlings

Phase planting
o Phase planting can be divided into 2 parts:
§ Transferring seedlings
§ Planting

Transferring seedlings
o Seed dipesemaian have berumum 17-25 days (depending on the type of rice, early maturing / in) can be immediately transferred kelahan which has been prepared.

Terms of seedlings that are ready to move into field:
o Seeds were aged 17 -25 days
o Seeds leafy strands 5 -7
o Batang bottom of a large, and strong
o Growth of seedlings uniform (on the same type of rice)
o Seeds are not attacked by pests and diseases
o Seedlings older than 25 days or less good, perhaps even been there that has puppies.

Plant
In planting the seeds of paddy, the things that must be considered are:
a. Bolt system (way of planting)
b. Spacing
c. The relationship of plant
d. The number of plants per hole
e. Into plant seedlings
f. How to plant

Bolt system (way of planting)
o It would look neat
o Ease of maintenance, especially in weeding
o fertilization, pest and disease control will be better and faster
o And other treatments
o The need seeds / use of seedlings can be known easily

Spacing
Factors determining plant spacing on rice plants, depending on:

o Type of crops
o Soil fertility
o Elevation / season

Type of plant
o certain types of rice can produce many tillers. The number of chicks that many require a larger spacing, the opposite type of rice that has a number of tillers require slightly narrower spacing.

Soil fertility
o The absorption of nutrients by the roots of rice plants would affect the determination of spacing, for the development of roots or the plant itself in the fertile soil better dati on the development of roots / plants on infertile soil. Therefore, a spacing that is needed on the ground which will suburpun wider spacing padah dati on the brink fertile soil.

Altitude.
o Areas that have a certain altitude, such as mountainous regions will memerlikan jarakn planting a more tightly than in lowland spacing, this is closely related to water supply. Rice crop varieties require a spacing of 20 x 20 cm in the dry season, and 25 x 25 cm in the rainy season.

The relationship of plant
Relationship-related plant spacing. The relationship of plants that are often applied are:
o The relationship of plant square (rectangular)
o Relationship crop rectangle.
o The relationship of plant 2 rows.

Number of plants (seeds) per hole
o A good seed crop will determine its use on every hole. Pemakian seedlings per hole between 2-3 bar
o The depth of planting
o Seeds are planted too deep / shallow causing poor plant growth, plant into a good 3-4 cm.

How to plant
o Planting rice seedlings begins with highlights of land / use a string gauge to determine the spacing. After completion of the spacing measurement rice cultivation simultaneously.

MAINTENANCE
Includes:
a. Stitching and weeding
b. Irrigation
c. Fertilization

Stitching and weeding
What harns considered in stitching:
o Seed used should be the same type
o Seeds are used is the remainder of the previous seed
o stitching should not be melampoi 10 days after planting
o In addition to staple crops (plant pests) so removed

Irrigation

Irrigation of paddy fields can be distinguished:
o Water is continuously
o Watering is piriodik

Fertilization

The goal is to provide for the foods that act is essential for good plant growth processes / production, fertilizers are often used by farmers in the form:
o Natural Fertilizer (organic)
o artificial fertilizer (an organic)

Dose of fertilizer used:
Urea o 250 -300 kg / ha
o Fertilizer SP 36 75 -100 kg / ha
o Fertilizer KCI 50 -100 kg / ha

Fertilization is recommended to use organic pukuk, but needs to consider using homemade organic fertilizer will increase production costs given the amount of fertilizer that more and more so there is an additional cost of energy and transportation costs if the location of the compost pembuatakan far from land. For short-term economic analysis is not advisable to use organic fertilizers, but if the long-term oriented it is advisable to use organic fertilizers because organic fertilizers to restore soil conditions into an ideal state.

PEST AND DISEASES ON RICE PLANTS
Important pests

White rice stem borer ("sundep", Scirpophaga innotata)
Yellow rice stem borer (S. incertulas)
White back planthopper stem (Sogatella furcifera)
Brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens)
Green leafhoppers (Nephotettix impicticeps)
Green javelin (Nezara viridula)
Stinky rice pest (Leptocorisa oratorius)
Ganjur (Pachydiplosis oryzae)
Flies seeds (Arterigona exigua)
Silkworm army / armyworm (Spodoptera litura and S. exigua)
Rice rat (Rattus argentiventer)

Important diseases

blast (Pyricularia oryzae, P. grisea)
bacterial leaf blight ("crackle", Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae)

"Hopefully useful"
abstracted by

Dwi Hartoyo,SP

 

 

 

 

 

 

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