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CULTIVATION
MELON
(Cucumis melo L.)

 

Melon (Cucumis melo L.) is a fruit that is included in the tribe-pumpkin Labuan or Cucurbitaceae. Basanya melon fruit eaten fresh or can be to mix drinks fresh. The part eaten is the fruit flesh (mesokarp). Their texture is soft, white to red, yellow and there is also dependent kultivarnya. Melon (Cucumis melo L.) is a plant family Cucurbitaceae including fruit and fruits melons come from the Valley Popular Persian or Mediterranean region which is the border between West Asia with Europe and Africa. And this plant eventually spread into the Middle East and into Europe. In the 14th century melons brought to America by Columbus and eventually cultivated area in Colorado, California, and Texas. Finally melons spread all over the world especially in the tropics and subtropics including Indonesia.
Agribusiness melon show promising prospects but if not managed properly and professionally then the farmers can also be a loss.


Image: Fruit Melon

Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Cucurbitales
Family: Cucurbitaceae
Genus: Cucumis
Species: C. melo

Binomial name
Cucumis melo L.

 

 

Melon Planting Center in Indonesia

Indonesia Sebalum 1980s pertained Melon importing country, because the melon promising business in Indonesia and many agribusiness companies that tried to grow melons for the cultivated area Kalianda (Lampung) and Cisarua (Bogor), they planted varieties of melons of America, Taiwan, France, Denmark, Japan , Netherlands, China, and Germany.

Then the melons grown in Madiun, Ponorogo, Ngawi until the ex-residency of Surakarta (of Sragen, Karanganyar, Boyolali, Klaten Sukoharjodan). These areas are the largest supplier of melon fruit than in the Kalianda and Cisarua .

Plant Type

Genetic diversity

Melon is very diverse, especially seen from the form of fruit. There are eight groups of culture ('cultivar group') in this species. Three of the most popular are
Reticulatus (melon commonly known, the fruit skin is usually "berjala"), Inodorus (melon 'Honeydew', which is oval shaped with wrinkled skin) and Cantalupensis (therein including cantaloupe, true European cantaloupe). There is one other group whose fruits are also eaten, Group mandrakes.

The types of melons are famous are: Melon Surprise (1876); melon sill Hybrid (1870); melon Christianism (1850); Ivondequoit melon, netted Gem, Hacken Sack, Miller Cream, and Osage (1881-1890); melon Honey Rock and Improved perfecto (1933); melon Imperial (1935); melon Queen of Colorado and Honey Gold (1939). To facilitate the planting and grouping system cantaloupe, honeydew experts classify into two types, namely:

a.Tipe Winter-Melon
1. Varieties: (1) Cucumis melo var. inodorous, smooth rind, fruit length with a diameter of 2.5 to 7.5 cm, (2) Cucumis melo var. flexuosus, smoother fruit surface, fruit length between 35-70 cm, (3rd), Cucumis melo var. dudain, small size, often for decorative plants, (4) Cucumis melo var. Chito, the size of a lemon fruit, often used as an ornamental plant.

2.Ciri traits: fruit skin smooth, shiny and fragrant aroma of fruit not; slow to mature fruit of 90-120 days; easily damaged and not durable to be stored; type of melon is often used as an ornamental plant.

******** New Varieties Melon ....... ( klik here ) ********

b. Type of netted-melon
1. Varieties: (1) Cucumis melo var. reticulatus, small fruits, such as nets and fragrant deep, (2) Cucumis melo var. cantelupensis, large fruit, skin scaly and fragrant.

2. Characteristics: fruit leather hard, rough, deeply and themes such nets (net); relatively more fragrant aroma compared with winter-melon; cook faster between 75-90 days; durable and durable for storage.

Melon Fruit Benefits
Sebaga utilized melon fruit fresh food with vitamin C is high enough.
melon fruit on the fruit used for dessert after a meal, to a mixture of fresh fruit drinks, etc.

GROWTH CONDITIONS

Climate
Keep in full sun exposure during growth. The influence of climate that affect plant growth Melon is:

a.Tanaman melons require full solar radiation during growth.
b. Melon plants require a cool, dry temperatures for growth. Growth temperature for planting melons between 25-30 degrees C. Melon plants can not grow if less than 18 degrees C
Air c.Kelembaban indirectly affect the growth of melon plants. In high humidity melon crops vulnerable to disease.
d. The rain continued fruit will abort candidates that have been formed and can also make conditions favorable environment for pathogens. When the melon crop before harvest, will reduce the sugar content in fruit. .
e. The wind is blowing hard enough to damage the melon crop, can break the leaf stalk, fruit stalk and stems of plants.

Growing Media

a.Tanaman melon basically requires a lot of water. However, should it come from irrigation water, not from rain water.
b. Melon plants will grow well if the pH from 5.8 to 7.2
c. Good soil for melon cultivation is sandy clay which contains organic materials to facilitate the plant roots to grow melons. Melon plants do not like the ground is too wet

Altitude Venue
Plant melons can grow quite well at an altitude of 300-900 meters above sea level. If the height of more than 900 meters above sea level does not produce an optimum crop.

TECHNICAL GUIDELINES FOR MELON FARMING

Nurseries

Seed Requirements
Healthy melon plants and produce optimum derived from plant seeds are healthy, strong and well-preserved initially. Seeds were soaked into a solution of Furadan and Atonik for 2 (two) hours. Good seed at the bottom of water, and seeds the less good will float on water surface. Therefore, seeding is the key to the success of an agribusiness melons.

Preparation of Seeds
a. Procurement of generative seed
Generative phase is marked by discharge rates. In this phase the plant requires a lot of the elements phosphorus for strengthening roots and form the seeds in the fruit. In this phase when the plants in a healthy condition, then the nets on fruit is expected to appear equally. To support the growth of generative plants sprayed with foliar fertilizer Complesal super tonic (red) with a concentration of 2 g / liter once a week. To prevent deficiencies of calcium and boron element of the plants sprayed with foliar fertilizer Ferti-cal with the concentration of 2 ml / liter or Cab with a concentration of 2 ml / liter.

b. Source seed
To plant melon seeds we must know the source first. We recommend that you always use the original seed (F1 hybrid).

c. Procurement of seeds through vegetative (tissue culture)
With tissue culture method, the selection of planting media and explant source used must be appropriate to give maximum results. The basic medium used is composed of salts based on the composition of Murashige & Skoog (1962) with the addition of thiamin 0.04 mg / liter, myo-inositol 100 mg / liter, surkosa 30 grams / liter of various combinations of plant hormones were added in accordance with the treatment. Media made in solid form with the addition for bacto 8 grams / liter, pH 5.7 media created with the addition of 0.1 N NaOH or HCl media sterilization by autoclave pressurized 17.5 psi, the temperature of 120 degrees C for 30 menit.Tanaman obtained from tissue culture to form the male flowers and female flowers separti as plants derived from seed.

d. How to seed storage
Seeds should be stored in a dry place and a place to store seeds can be made simple nursery house because considering the age of the seeds only for 10-14 days, because to protect the young plant seeds from the hot sun, rain water, and pest and disease attack. Alas the home nursery, where coated paper is placed newspaper polybags for seedling roots did not penetrate into the soil.

e. Needs seed
Seed required in accordance with a planting plus 10% for reserve stitching.

f. Seed treatment
Melon seed treatment requires a much simpler compared with non-seed watermelon seed. This is because the skin is thin enough so that the melon does not need extra treatment. Treatment for melon seed is washing, soaking, and seed ripening.

TECHNIQUE seeding MELON SEEDS

a. Making Media for the Nursery
Melon including plants that are not too demanding media-specific seedling pembibitannya. Medium can be made with variations, for example by mixing soil, sand and manure or compost, as long as such comparison 1:1:1. To get the melon seeds are sturdy and healthy then the exact composition of the seedling medium consisting of a mixture of soil, manure, fertilizer SP-36 or NPK plus carbofuran ..

b. Ways and seeding time
Melon seeds to be planted, first soaked in water for 2-4 hours. Then the seeds planted in a plastic bag, that has been filled soil and manure are mixed with the ratio 5: 1. Seeds planted in an upright position and the tip facing down roots candidate. Seeds covered with a mixture of rice husk ash and soil with a ratio of 2:1 which has been prepared, so that plants can grow well, do not easily fall down. To stimulate germination of seeds by creating a warm atmosphere then close the surface of the seedbed with wet burlap sacks. If the sprouts have emerged seedling media surface (on day-3 or the 4th) burlap sack can then be opened


Rearing Breeding / seeding
After sowing seeds in polybag seedlings will grow into a candidate, and must receive proper maintenance in order to become healthy melon seedlings and stocky.

a. How and When Watering
Seeds dipersemaian in flush every morning. Starting from the sprouts did not emerge until seedlings emerge soil surface. Spray tanks used for watering. When spray for watering not too strong because it will erode the soil media and throw the seed or sprout out of the polybags. When the true leaves come out, watering the new seeds can be embrat or gembor. When the weather is hot, dry soil in polybags and watering should be repeated in the afternoon, do not water the seedlings during the day because it will cause water and nutrients can not be absorbed as a result of seedlings being thin, dry and withered.

b. Thinning
Thinning was conducted in order to prepare the seeds of healthy and stocky to be planted. Thinning was started 3 days before planting seedlings to the field. Seedlings that have gathered into one uniform growth. The seeds of that growth is removed and planted pine.

c. Fertilization
For seedling vegetative growth can be stimulated by spraying foliar fertilizer containing a high nitrogen. Foliar fertilizer is done once, namely when the HSS 7-9 seedlings with concentrations from 1.0 to 1.5 grams / liter. Fertilizer root form of chemical fertilizers and organic fertilizers do not need to be added during the seeding because of fertilizer given to the media root seedlings have been sufficient. Suggested use KNO3 fertilizer.

d. Provision of Pesticides In The Nursery
At the time of pesticide spraying nursery conducted if deemed necessary. Full concentration will cause the leaves are burnt melon seeds (plasmolysis). The dose when using the tank 12 liters of pesticide bottle cap with 2-3 .. Penyomprotan is done mainly during 2-3 days before the seedlings are planted in the field. Examples of pesticide used is insecticide Dicarzol 0.5 g / liter and fungicide Previcur N 1.0 ml / liter.

TRANSFER OF SEED
Melon seeds moved into the field when it is leafless 4-5 pieces or melon plants were 10-12 days old. How to transfer was not different from the way the transfer of other plants, ie plastic bags polybags are carefully removed and the soil below seed planted in beds that have been drilled before, bedenganpun do not let a lack of water.

Media Processing Plant

Preparation

a. Soil Analysis
Based on the facts in the field melon crops can be grown on various types of soil, especially soil andosol, latosol regosol, and grumosol, provided that lack of soil properties can be manipulated by liming, the addition of organic materials, and fertilizing.

b. Soil pH Measurement
Measurement of soil pH by using pH meter. Land to be on measuring wetted first. Sampling was conducted in 10 different points, then calculated the average pH, although sometimes this method does not fully represent the average pH of the soil, but it is still better so that we could treat the land more wisely.

c. Determination of Planting Area
Determination of the planting area is closely related to the ownership of capital, land area available, the season and market demand. Melon plants cultivated in open land in the rainy season will break down to disease because rain washed constantly. So planting melons in the wet season is more directed to the hydroponic system or at least when put through planting in the rainy season it must be ready funds for pesticides.

d.The timing of planting / Schedule Planted
The timing of planting associated with the estimated time of harvest a melon varieties planted and other melon varieties at harvest so that farmers and agribusiness entrepreneurs need to schedule the time of the desired crop varieties of melons customers.

e. Production Volume Settings
Setting the volume of production is closely related to the estimated price at harvest and market demand. How melon planting done in stages. For example the first planting of 20% in location A, the second 40% in location B, and the third 40% in location C. Planting intervals ranging from 2 weeks. This setting is commonly done in agribusiness melon by hydroponic system. To maintain continuity of production, usually 1-2 weeks later using the earnings interval. On the other hand this method can also arrange finance farmers.

PLANTING

a. Piracy
For planting melons in medium-high plateau, the soil structure is usually very crumbs so it does not require piracy. Land should be plowed first flooded overnight, then the next day made piracy is enough to turn the soil so that adequate feedback is done once with a depth of about 30 cm.

b. As well as raking and cultivation Land Land Left Ready Planted
For the ground-breaking and raking, the soil should be fairly dry conditions. Because we can easily establish that the original soil berbongkah and enough clay-boulders, soil-crumbs and enough beremah den (easily absorbed by water). With the land will be beneficial plants. In addition to simple roots penetrate the soil, will also be easier to breathe.

Ground-breaking ways are as follows:
1. At first do the reversal of land (land still berbongkah-chunks.
2. Land of the ground-breaking mashed or crushed, with a depth of  ± 30-50 cm. (For two times cangkulan)
3. Conducted ground-breaking land if things really are categorized into heavy soil. If not, once is enough land beremah hoes and we can do another job.

Formation of beds

a. Making way
Over 5-7 days allowed to dry land after a hijacked (or behind). This process will make the soil becomes sticky and berbongkah after hijacked a bit devastated by experiencing the process of sun drying and aeration. During this process several chemical compounds that are toxic and harmful plants and will disappear slowly. Once dry, the soil blocks made map with rope to form beds with a maximum length beds 12-15 m; beds 30-50 cm tall; 100-110 cm wide beds, and 55-65 cm wide moat.

b. Shape beds
Beds formed by chunks of land hoe menjandi crumb soil structure / loose. When has the form of beds look, be it beds rough / semi-finished beds are dikeringanginkan again for a week for a process of oxidation / evaporation of toxic elements exist until disappears completely.

c. Size and Distance beds
With a maximum length of 15 m it will simplify maintenance and speed up the disposal of water plants, especially in the rainy season. High beds made in accordance with the seasons and soil conditions. In the rainy season 50 cm high beds for plant roots are not immersed in water when heavy rains. And in the dry season is 30 cm high beds, because in order to facilitate maintenance during beds drowned. Trench made by 55-65 cm wide is to facilitate care at the time of spraying, mounting stake, and roping.

Calcification

With liming will increase calcium nutrients necessary for plant cell walls. Calcification can use dolomite / calmag (CaCO3 MgCO3) calcite / kaptan (CaCO3). Having acquired an average pH, determination needs to be done by using the following data:
a) the <4.0 (most acidic): the amount of lime> 10.24 tons / ha
b) 4.2 (extremely acid): the amount of lime 9.28 tonnes / ha
c) 4.6 (acid): the amount of lime 7.39 tons / ha
d) 5.4 (acid): the amount of lime 3.60 tonnes / ha
e) 5.6 (slightly acidic): the amount of lime 2.65 tonnes / ha
f) 6.1 to 6.4 (slightly acidic): the amount of lime <0.75 tons / ha

Installation of Plastic Mulch Black-Silver (PHP)

PHP mulch consisting of two layers, namely a silver lining in the top and bottom black colors with various advantages. Silver color on the mulch will reflect sunlight so that the process became more optimal photosynthesis, crop conditions are not too moist, reduces attack of disease, and repel insects such as plant penggangu Thirps and Aphids. While the black color of mulch will absorb the heat so the temperature in plant roots is warm. Consequently, root development will be optimal. Besides the black color also prevents sunlight penetrate into the soil so that weed seeds will not grow (except bananas puzzles and children).

PHP Installation of mulch should be done at the time blazing hot sun for mulch beds to expand so close properly. Technical installations simply by 2 people for a single bed. How pull both ends of mulch on beds, tie one end on the beds using a wedge clamp mulch then the other end. After both ends of the closely related PHP mulch on beds, by simultaneously pull the mulch beds on both sides of each meter simultaneously. Tie both sides of the beds with mulch and pegs clamp so that all sides had been meeting on the relevant mulch beds. After finishing installation, seedbed mulch-covered beds left PHP for 3-5 days before a planting hole. The objective for a given chemical fertilizer can be turned into a form available that can be absorbed by plants.

MELON PLANTING TECHNIQUE

Determination of Planting Pattern
Plant melons are seasonal crops are usually planted with monoculture pattern.

Hole Making Plant
To make the planting hole using a plate heater or utilize ex-cans condensed milk. Plate heater in the form of metal pieces with a diameter of 10 cm, made in such a way that the heat generated from the burning charcoal can punch mulch PHP quickly. Planting model can be two rows facing each other form a rectangle ati he Baros, face to face forming a triangle.


How Planting
Seedlings that have been in seedling + 3 weeks and moved into a large medium. Root crops are not cultivated until damaged when ripping small polybags. Prints soils already contain the seeds of melon, which has been placed on the hole ditugal and labored to no broken / destroyed because it can cause damage to the roots and the plant will wilt if a hot day.

Melon plants Plant Maintenance

Spacing and stitching
Thinning and stitching done if within 2 (two) weeks after planting seedlings did not show normal growth. Plant roots are removed and then replaced with the seed / the new plant. This is best done in the evening for the young plants can better adapt to his new environment. Stitching and thinning is usually done for 3-5 days, because of the possibility in the first week there are other plants that need to be embroidered. Currently after thinning and stitching a new plant should be drenched with water.

Weeding
In melon cultivation system PHP penyiangannya mulch made on the planting hole and trench between the two beds. Weeds are not cleaned causing planting moist environment that stimulates the disease. Weeds also can be a host of pests and harmful nematodes.

Landfill soil
To hoarding of land around the plant we first do is to start fertilizing and sterilize land there. The goal is after the land cultivated and nurtured, the land will become fertile and will be free from pests and diseases. When do fertilization, soil previously treated, has dikelentang for 2 weeks. That way, the expected long enough land is exposed to hot sun, was well enough to be planted.

Perempalan
Perempelan made to the bud / branch water is not the main branch.

Fertilization in Melon Plants

Fertilization given 3 times, ie 20 days after planting, the plants aged 40 days (when will perform thinning fruit) and at plants aged 60 days (when stepping on the ripening process). How spread evenly over the soil bed on the left and right edge (10-15 cm). Then the soil behind it carefully so as not to damage the plant roots, and so that fertilizer can be safely buried in the soil. To facilitate in fertilization, made a series of data about fertilization from the outset.
a) Manure / compost: fertilizer base = 10-20 tonnes / ha.
b) Urea: basal fertilizer = 440 kg / ha; fertilizer aftershocks I = 330 kg / ha; fertilizer aftershocks II = 220 kg / ha; fertilizer aftershocks III = 440 kg / ha.
c) TSP: fertilizer base = 1200 kg / ha; fertilizer aftershocks I = 220 kg / ha; fertilizer aftershocks II = 550 kg / ha.
d) KCl: fertilizer base = 330-440 kg / ha; fertilizer aftershocks II = 160 kg / ha.

Description basal fertilizer: fertilizer on soil management (before planting); fertilizer aftershocks I: age  ± 20 days; fertilizer aftershocks II: age + 40 days; fertilizer aftershocks III: age + 60 days.

Irrigation and Watering

a. Irrigation
Melon plants require a dry air for growth, but the soil must be moist. Watering should be done if the day does not rain. Watering done in the afternoon or evening.

b. Sprinkling
Plants in the flush from the time of plant growth, until the plants will be picked fruit. When watering not to wet the leaves and spray water from ground water not affected by leaf and fruit. Aim is to ensure that plants are not afflicted by diseases originating from the spark, if wet leaves will invite a huge mushroom. Watering was done early in the morning or at night. Therefore, there is irrigation in the surrounding garden immense benefits.

Left of Pesticide Spraying

a. Preventive measures, the seeds were soaked in bactericidal solution Agrimycin (Oxytetracycline and streptomycin sulfate) or Agrept (streptomycin sulfate) with a concentration of 1.2 grams / liter and spraying bactericidal at age 20 HST.

b. Spraying fungicides Previcur N (propamocarb hydrochloride) with a concentration of 2-3 ml / liter if the attack had passed the economic threshold.

c. Derasol 500 SC fungicide (carbendazim) with a concentration of 1-2 ml / liter. Base of the stem is attacked dioles with fungicide solution Calixin 750 EC (tridemorph) with a concentration of 5 ml / liter.

Other Maintenance

a. Marking Installation
Stake or stick of wood or bamboo blade, for propagation can be installed to finish creating pembubunan and finished sterilize garden. Or can also stake mounted after the seed is planted, and seedlings have issued a tendril-sulurnya height is approximately 50 cm. Stake must be made of strong materials that can withstand the load of fruit with a weight of approximately 2-3 kg. Ditancapkannya place marker with a distance of approximately 25 cm from the edge of both right and left guludan. To be more robust marker again, we can add a length of bamboo which is placed at the top of the triangle between the bamboo or wooden crosses, following the line of marker-marker behind.

b. Pruning
Trimming is done on melon plants aim to maintain in accordance with the desired branch. Plant height was made on average between the 20 th point until the 25th (the section, branch or a book of these plants). Prune if sunny and dry air, so that the scars are not attacked by fungi. When pruning is done every 10 days, the earliest is a branch cut close to the ground and leaving two leaves, then the branches that grow and then trimmed with leaves 2 leaves. Pruning is stopped, if the height of the plants had reached the branch into the 20 or 25.

Melon crops Pests and Diseases

Melon crop pests

a.Thirps (Thirps parvispinus Karny)
Feature: These pests attack the current phase of the seedling to mature plants. Nymph thirps yellowish and blackish brown thirps adult. Thirps proliferate very rapidly in parthenogenetic (able to bear offspring but not married). The attack carried out in the dry season. Symptoms: young leaves or new shoots become curly, and bercaknya yellowish; plants curling and stunted and unable to form normal fruit. If these symptoms are present to watch out for having contracted the virus that brought thirps pests. Control: spray with a contact poison, 3-4 days

b.Kutu aphids (Aphis gossypii Glover)
Feature: These pests have the lymph fluid that contains honey and viewed from a distance shiny. This pest attacks the melon crop in the field planting. Aphids are attacking young melons are yellow, while the adults have wings and somewhat blackish in color. Symptoms: leaf roll plants and shoots of plants become dry due to fluid smoked leaf pests. Control: (1) weeds must be cleaned to avoid a host of pests, (2) severely infected plants should be sprayed with insecticide Perfekthion simultaneously 400th of EC (dimethoate) with a concentration of 1.0-2.0 ml / liter, (3rd) plants that had been infected with the virus should be removed and burned (destroyed).

Diseases of Melon plants

a. Stem base rot (gummy stem bligt),
Cause: Fungus Mycophaerekka melonis (Passerini), Chiu et Walker. Symptoms: base of the stem is attacked at first like a submerged oil and then came out red-brown colored mucus and then plants wither and die; leaves of affected plants will dry up when kneaded like crackers and crackle-crackle sound when the wind. Control: (1) the use of PHP mulch to prevent moisture around the base of the stem and prevent injuries in the roots and base of the stem as weeding, (2) the leaves of infected plants cleaned and sprayed with Derasol 500 SC fungicide (carbendazim) with concentration 1 - 2 ml / liter; (3) base of the stem is attacked dioles with fungicide solution Calixin 750 EC (tridemorph) with a concentration of 5 m / liter.

b.Bacterial Wilt
Cause: bacteria Erwina tracheiphila E.F.Sm. This disease can be spread by intermediaries-Oteng Oteng leaf beetle (Aulacophora femoralis Motschulsky). Symptoms: The leaves and branches wilt and shrinkage occurs in the leaves, leaf color yellow, dry up and eventually die; leaf wilting plants one by one, even though the color is still green, then withered plants overall. If the plant stem is cut crosswise will issue a white thick and sticky mucus can even be drawn like a thread. Control: (1) before planting, land sterilized with Basamid G with dose of 40 g/m2, (2) soak the seeds in the bactericidal Agrimyciin (Oxytetracycline and streptomycin sulfate) or Agrept (streptomycin sulfate) with a concentration of 1.2 grams / liter; (3) spraying this bactericidal at age 20 HST.

Weeds
Weed (plant pests) harm plants, because nutrients compete, grow and light the place. Cancellation of the weeds must be done since the plants are still small, because if it would damage the roots of melon plants.

Harvest

Characteristics and Harvest Time

a. Signs / feature appearances Ready to Harvest Crops

1. Yellowish green skin color
2. Fiber nets on fruit skin is very real / rough
3.Ukuran fruit in accordance with the normal size.

b. Harvest + 3 months after planting.

c. Harvesting is a good time in the morning.

How to Harvest

a. Cut the stem of melon with a knife, reserving at least 2.0 cm to extend the shelf life fruit
b. Stalk-shaped cut the letter "T", ie for the fruit stalks intact and both sides it is the leaf stalk has been cut leaves.
c. Harvesting is done in stages, with emphasis on fruits that have actually been ready for harvest.
d. The fruit has been harvested is collected in one place to be sorted. Fruit damage due to knock / other physical disability, should be avoided because it will reduce the selling price, especially in supermarkets.

Melon Harvest Period

Harvest is done in stages, with priority to fruit that is really ready to harvest. If within the next 3-5 months melon prices predicted to fall. So an alternative to crop rotation that can use the land used to grow melons is chili. Because the available land does not need to be changed. PHP mulch only be opened and added to 50% dose fertilization.

If within a period of 4 months later revealed melon prices rise, then planted rice paddy land used for one season before planting. The reason is in terms of kormesial rice plants less profitable, but in terms of termination of the life cycle of pests and diseases is very profitable. This is due to pests and diseases that suck oxygen (aerobic), will die with waterlogged soil conditions (anaerobic). After the rice is finished, the plant will produce melons are planted high with pest and disease risk is lower.

Production Forecast

To determine the amount of production that will be produced marketing department must conduct market research. For one hectare of crop area is expected to produce honeydew melon 10-15 ton, then harvest it should be done gradually. For example week I planted area of 2000 m2, the second week of planting area of 2000 m2, and so on. This is for the level of continuity of production will be achieved and risks are not terjualnya melon will be spared.

Postharvest
Postharvest a series of activities carried out after the melon was harvested. In postharvest handling errors will influence the quality / appearance of melon.

Collection
The fruits of melon that has been harvested is collected at a site to be sorted. Fruit damage at harvest should be avoided due to hit or other physical smallpox, because it would reduce selling prices primarily for the consumption of a supermarket.

Sorting and classification

Melon that has been harvested, transported and collected at a place later in the sorting. Fruit is healthy and intact fruit is separated from the physical defect or disability due to pests and diseases. Good-quality melon and melon in doing the classification based on three classes.

a. Class M1 namely melon weighing 1.5 kg or more perfectly shaped nets.

b. M2 class of melons weighing 1-1.5 kg webs formed only 70% only.

c. Class M3 is a net weight of fruit varies with little or no shape at all. This occurs because the crop is harvested but not yet dead time in advance due to pest attack.

Storage

Melon fruit that has been learned, should not be stacked with one another, and fruit that have not been transported can be stored in the warehouse. Fruit arranged neatly with the coated straw dry. Fruit storage area should be clean, dry and free from pests such as cockroaches or mice. Already too ripe melons do not put together with a half-ripe fruit (mengkal). When there are fruits that start away from the foul must be in storage.


Packaging and Transportation

Packaging for the melon can be made of ordinary wood, and many have a vent. How to compile, the base of the box was given a fairly thick dry straw, hay and melon are also given at the top of the fruit. Before the box is closed, melon given layer of straw again.

Apart from the box, packaging can also use a similar yarn knitted netting, then inserted in cardboard packaging. The cardboard was still covered with dry straw or paper debris. With packaging like this will be more secure than using a box of wood (the traditional way).

Vehicles used to transport melons to be brought to market depending on distance traveled. Fruit that will be exported are usually packed in special containers made of wood, cardboard or plastic boxes. On cargo aircraft, containers melon put into containers for refrigerator remain fresh fruit if you get to your destination.

Melon Agribusiness Opportunities

Agribusiness melons should be done carefully and remain ever vigilant. Although based on the analysis of melon farming agribusiness show prospects are promising, but once the spraying is delayed or other trivial matters not addressed then the gains that have to imagine would be gone instantly.

In the era of trade towards the free market, competition is getting tighter. Need to look for specific markets in order to boost the selling price. High-quality fruit on offer will be eligible to obtain a higher selling price. Information sought market price as much as possible before the harvest takes place. Chain trading system studied seteliti possible. Endeavored teRp.endek chain to obtain the highest sale price.

In addition to having the shape and taste different, melons box also has a relatively high economic value. In order to keep the box melon flavor taste sweet and crisp as the original. As for the price of melon boxes worth about Rp 150,000 per seed.

VIEWED in terms of profitability, cultivate melon crop is promising. Greater advantage than when farming food crops to another. But the risk of failure was also continues to overshadow. Therefore, melon farming requires absolute mastery of horticultural cultivation technology is mature, intense, and scrutiny.

Harvest honeydew melon in the garden Sendangagung Village, District Giriwoyo, Wonogiri, Monday (8 / 8), mengungkuhkan that on marginal land to grow any melons grow well, and gave maximum fruit. Land melon, it was not technically be in the area of rice fields as do the farmers in Sukoharjo (Central Java) and Ngawi (East Java).

"But, farming melons big capital and the risk of failure too great," said farmer Suwardi who doubles as chairman Sendangagung melon farmer groups.

For a melon, it is necessary cultivation fund Rp 2,000 to Rp 2,300. Therefore, for every land ownership, melon farmers in the area of each growing season requires cultivation budget of about USD 15 million.

Suwardi said, if later harvest could provide benefits to Rp 6 million-USD 8 million. Harvest schedule is every 60 days.

Farmers on the melon garden Sendangagung, had no difficulty in marketing the production. Because, they can establish a direct market with traders in Jakarta.

For the moment, whatever the production of honeydew produced all absorbed in the capital markets, with an average price of Rp 2.400/kg.

Other melon farmers, Katno, claimed to have the land area of 1.5 ha melon which, when harvested to provide the results of seven tons to eight tons of fruit.

STANDARD PRODUCTION

In improving the welfare of society at large, especially melon farmers, the Government set a discretion in selecting the order type of agricultural crops / horticulture. Within the scope of the following has been compiled a few guidelines as follows:

a. Prioritize melon crops of high economic value, to increase farmers' income melons, both for domestic and foreign consumption.

b. Giving priority to species of plants that can provide more employment opportunities.

c. Prioritize melon plants that have a market prospect and good marketing.

d. Prioritize melon plants that can enhance the nutritional value of the community.

Based on the description above, the melon plant is one of the main priority crops that need to get the attention of horticultural crops. Melon fruit has a relatively higher price compared to horticultural crops in general. This gives many benefits to farmers or agricultural entrepreneurs melon plants. And this allows for improved governance of the Indonesian economy, particularly from agriculture.

Classification and Quality Standards

For the classification of quality standards and requirements applicable products in the market then we should observe the following:
a) Melon produced should be given a brand, namely, by attaching a sticker on the fruit;
b) The trust that has been provided by the customer must be maintained;
c) Market share must be strengthened, and continuity (sustainability) melon production must be maintained;
d) melon fruit quality (class M1) must be packaged in such a way as to provide customer satisfaction.

Sampling
In collecting samples for further production handling, aged approximately 56-65 HST melon, melon fruit that are large have an average weight of 2.5 kg, 1.0 to 2.5 kg of medium size and small size fruit weight is about 400 gram.

Packaging
For packaging that can use standard wood box or can also use a similar yarn knitted nets. With knitted yarn package to be more secure than using a wooden box.

 

Greetings farmer
abstracted by

Dwi Hartoyo, SP

 

REFERENCES MELON FARMING
a. http://teknis-budidaya.blogspot.com/2007/10/pendahuluan-agribisnis-melon.html
b. http://www.freewebs.com/wongtani/bertani.htm
c. melon boxes:
http://www.google.co.id/imgres?imgurl=http://c0c0latez.files.wordpress.com/2009/06/melonkotakdlm.jpg&imgrefurl
d. http://theangel.wordpress.com/2008/10/12/budi-daya-melon-janjikan-keuntungan/
e. http://www.wawasandigital.com/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=2767&Itemid=61
f. http://www.stppgowa.ac.id/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=75&Itemid=73
g. http://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Melon
h. http://ramadani.info/index.php/info-agribisnis/74-budidaya-melon
i. http://banten.litbang.deptan.go.id/ind/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=84:melon&catid=27:horti
j. http://www.solusibizniz.com/index.php?option = com _content & view = article & id = 92:-melon cultivation
k. http://yudicool.wordpress.com/2009/03/07/budidaya-meloncucurbitaceae/

 

 

 

 

 

 

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