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CULTIVATION
COCOA
(Theobroma cacao)

 

Cocoa is one commodity that has an important role in the Indonesian economy. The amount of community interest to develop cocoa trees look real with many demands of training and cultivation of cocoa seedlings.

Cocoa or Theobroma cacao L., is one of the commodities that fit the culture of the soil and climate in Indonesia. These plants including tropical plants group.

In Indonesia, a lot of growing cocoa in Sulawesi, Lampung, and Flores, East Nusa Tenggara. Understandably, in the area there are many suitable bare land planted with cocoa.

Moreover, the result of high economic value of commodities to encourage the interest of the farmers there to membudidayakannya. However, it is not easy to cultivate this plant. Shade and land preparation are two important things that need attention. Shade can be used for cover crops, such as lamtoro, gleresidae, and albazia. Moreover, the cultivation of cocoa is not too complicated.

Cacao (Theobroma cacao) is a tangible plant trees that originated from South America. Cocoa bean plants can be produced refined products, known as chocolate. Cocoa is a commodity of high economic value of plantation. Plants that are the raw material of this chocolate to fruit throughout the year. That is why many farmers attracted membudidayakannya. In the habitat of origin, regular cocoa grown in the tropical rain forests are protected under big trees. Cocoa is an annual plant (perennial) in the form of trees, in nature can reach a height of 10m. However, in high cultivation is made not more than 5m but with a canopy that extends sideways. This is done to increase the productive branches.

Flowers cocoa, as other members of the Sterculiaceae, grew directly from the trunk (cauliflorous). Perfect flowers are small (maximum diameter 3cm), a single, but it is strung because often a number of flower buds emerge from a single point.

Cocoa flowers grow from the stem.
Flower pollination by an insect (mainly small flies (Midge) Forcipomyia, winged ants, aphids, and some bees TRIGONA) which usually occurs at night hari1. Ready flowers pollinated within a few days.
Cocoa in general is cross-pollinated plants and have the self-incompatibility system. However, some cocoa varieties capable of self-pollinating and producing commodities with higher selling value.
The fruit grows from the pollinated flowers. Fruit size is much larger than the flowers, and round to elongated. The fruit consists of 5 leaves and fruit have the space and in it there are seeds. Fruit color changes. When young green to purple. If the outer skin of ripe fruit is usually yellow.
Seeds strung on the placenta that grows from the base of the fruit, on the inside. Seeds are protected by the coated seeds (aryl), soft white. In terms of agriculture called the pulp. Endospermia seeds contain fat with a high enough level. In post-harvest processing, pulp fermented for three days then dried seeds in the sun.

The types of commodities

Fruit from three different hybrid cocoa series "Djatiroenggo" (DR).
Cocoa as a commodity trading is usually divided into two major groups: the noble cocoa ("Edel cacao") and cocoa bulk ("bulk cacao").

In Indonesia, precious cocoa is produced by some old plantations in Java. Precious cocoa-producing varieties derived from breeding by the Dutch colonial period, and is known from its name beginning with "DR" (for example, DR-38). This abbreviation stands for the name taken from the plantation where he did the selection (Djati Roenggo, in the area Ungaran, Central Java). Berpenyerbukan own noble cocoa varieties and comes from criollo type.

Criollo cacao fruit.
Most of the cocoa-producing areas in Indonesia to produce cocoa bulk. Bulk cocoa derived from varieties of self-incompatible. Usually low quality bulk cocoa, although production is higher. Not the sense of preferred but usually the fat content.

ARD-ACIAR Hope clone 10, clones hope ARD-ACIAR 24 and clone-ACIAR ARD Expectations 25. "Varieties of Cocoa Clones Hope this is a high yielding varieties that are expected to survive the attack cocoa stem borer (CPB).

Cocoa Producing Countries
Eight is the largest cocoa producing countries (data for harvest 2005)
Ivory Coast 1 (38%)
2 Ghana (19%)
3 Indonesia (13%, most of the cocoa bulk)
4 Nigeria (5%)
5 Brazil (5% each)
6 Cameroon (5%)
7 Ecuador (4%)
8 Malaysia (1%)

Other countries produce 9% of the rest.

Scientific classification Cocoa Plant
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Malvales
Family: Malvaceae
(Sterculiaceae)
Genus: Theobroma
Species: T. cacao
Binomial name
Theobroma cacao L.


Raquel plant and its fruit

History of Chocolate
Cocoa as a key ingredient in chocolate by history not only for chocolate alone, according to the history of chocolate in the quotation from Wikipedia. as follows:

The earliest documentation of chocolate found in its use in a chocolate manufacturing sites in Puerto Escondido, Honduras around 1100 -1400 BC. Residues from the processing tanks indicates that the initial use of cacao was not destined to make a drink, but white selput contained in cocoa beans are more inclined to use as a source of sugar to alcohol.

Brown residue found on the pottery used by the ancient Maya in Río Azul, northern Guatemala, suggests that the Maya drank chocolate around the year 400 BC. The first civilizations inhabiting the Meso-American region was known tree "kakawa" whose fruits are consumed as a beverage xocolatl which means a bitter drink. According to them, these drinks should be consumed every day, for some reason. However, it seems that chocolate is also a symbol of prosperity. How to serve it was not arbitrary. By holding a liquid container is as high as his chest and poured into another container on the ground, an expert presenter who can make a thick foam, part of what makes the drink so valuable. This foam is actually produced by the cocoa fat (cocoa butter), but sometimes also added extra foam. Meso-American people seem to have a critical habit of drinking and eating porridge containing chocolate. The seeds of the cacao tree itself is very bitter and must be fermented for taste can be obtained. Once baked and dibubukkan result is chocolate or cocoa. It is estimated that drinking chocolate to the Maya began about the year 450 BC - 500 BC. It is said that chocolate consumption is considered as an important status symbol in those days. Mayan chocolate consumed in the form of frothy fluid sprinkled red pepper, vanilla, or other spices. Chocolate drinks are also believed to be the prevention of fatigue, a belief that may result from theobromin content therein.

When the classic Maya civilization collapsed (around 900) and was replaced by the Toltec, cocoa beans became a major commodity Meso-America. During the Aztec Empire in power (until about 1500 BC) region which includes the City of Mexico is now known as the Meso-American region most rich in cocoa beans. For the Aztecs cocoa beans is the "food of the gods" (Theobroma, from the Greek). Usually the cocoa beans used in religious ceremonies and as gifts.

Chocolate is also a luxury item during the Meso-American Colombia, in their culture of the Maya, Toltec, and Aztec cocoa beans (cacao bean) is often used as currency. As an example of Aztec Indians using the system to calculate where a chicken turkey for a hundred cocoa beans and one avocado for three cocoa beans

As the year 1544 AD, a delegation of Kekchi Mayan Guatemalan who visited the palace of Spain bearing gifts, including chocolate drinks.

At the beginning of the 17th century, chocolate became the favorite beverages in the palace of Spain. Throughout the century, chocolate spread among the elite of Europe, then through the democratic process that price becomes cheap enough, at the end of the century and it became a drink enjoyed by the merchant class. Approximately 100 years after his arrival in Europe, so famous chocolate in London, to set up "chocolate houses" to store supplies chocolate, starting at coffee houses. The first chocolate house opened in 1657.

In 1689 a physician and collector named Hans Sloane, developed a type of milk chocolate drink in Jamaica and was originally drunk by tribal apothekari, but the drink is then sold by the Cadbury brothers.

All European chocolate was originally consumed as a beverage. New in 1847 found a brown solid. Europeans throw away almost all the spices are added by the Meso-Americans, but often retain vanilla. Also replaced many ingredients so that according to their own taste from a special recipe that requires ambergris, waxy purple dye extracted from the intestines of whales, to the more common ingredients such as cinnamon or cloves. However, the most commonly added are sugar. In contrast, the Meso-American chocolate did not appear to be sweet.

European Chocolate was originally mixed in the same manner used by the Maya and Aztecs. Even now, the way ancient Meso-America is still maintained, but in the industrial machine. Still slightly fermented cocoa beans, dried, roasted, and ground. However, a series of more complicated techniques were played. Brown powder emulsified with potassium or sodium carbonation for easy mixing with water (dutched, emulsification method found in the Netherlands), fat reduced by removing lot of cocoa fat (defatted), ground as a liquid in a special barrel (conched), or mixed with milk so that a milk chocolate (milk chocolate).

COCOA CULTIVATION TECHNIQUE

COCOA PLANTS GROWING CONDITIONS

LAND SUITABILITY AND COCOA PLANTS GROWING CONDITIONS
To be able to grow and produce well, cocoa plants requires suitable land, which has climatic conditions and specific soil conditions
Suitable climatic conditions for cocoa crops, among others:
- Rainfall is distributed fairly and evenly, with rainfall Jumah 1500 - 2500 mm / yr, with dry months no more than 3 months.
- The average temperature between 15? 30 C, with optimum temperature of 25.5 C
- Daily temperature fluctuations not more than 9 C
- No wind is blowing hard

Ground state of the desired cocoa plants, among others:
- Solum land in (> 150 cm)
- Texture and good soil structure, so that the soil has the capacity to hold water, aeration, and good drainage
- Soil pH between 6-7
- Content of organic matter not less than 3%
- High nutrient content
By review and survey on the ground will be obtained primary data and secondary data on climatic and soil conditions for land area in question.

Based on the data state of climate and soil conditions, land suitability for a crop can be evaluated and classified in categories according to (S) or not suitable (N). Suitable land to
divided into S1 (appropriate), S2 (moderately suitable), and S3 (less relevant).

A number of climatic and soil factors impeding the growth. The natural environment is tropical cacao tree. Accordingly rainfall, air temperature and sunlight to be part of the factors that determine climate. Likewise, the physical and chemical soil factors are closely related to permeability (penetration) and the ability of roots to absorb nutrients.

Judging from the cocoa planting area planted in areas that are at 10o to 10o N latitude. Nevertheless the spread of cocoa cultivation in general are among 7oLU until 18oLS. This is closely related to the distribution of the rainfall and the amount of solar radiation throughout the year. Cacao is still tolerant of area 20o N to 20o LS.Dengan Thus Indonesia, which is at 5o to 10o N latitude is still suitable for planting cocoa.

Altitude altitude places in Indonesia are ideal for cocoa cultivation is no higher than 800 m above sea level.

Rainfall Rainfall associated with the planting and production of cocoa is distributed throughout the year. This is related to the formation of young shoots and production. The area is an ideal cocoa planting areas with 1100-3000 mm rainfall per year. Rainfall exceeds 4500 mm per year tampakya closely related to the attack of fruit rot disease (blask pods). Areas rainfall is lower than 1,200 mm per year can still be planted with cocoa, but needed irrigation water. This is due to water lost through transpiration would be greater than the water received by plants from rainfall, so that the plant must be supplied with irrigation water. In review of this type of climate, is ideal cocoa grown in areas with climate type Am (according to Koppen) or B (according Scmidt and Fergusson). In areas of type C according to its climate (Scmidt and Fergusson) not good for growing cocoa as the long dry months. By comparing the rainfall with rainfall above the Asian type, Equator and Java in general the area of cocoa cultivation in Indonesia is still potential for development. The presence causes rainfall patterns that would still result in a fixed pattern of harvest as well.

Temperature Effect of temperature on cocoa closely related to the availability of water, sunlight and moisture. These factors can be managed through pruning, the arrangement of cover crops and irrigation. Temperature affects the formation of a flush, flowering, and leaf damage. According to the research, the ideal temperature for cocoa crop is 300C - 320C (maximum) and 180C-210C (minimum). Cocoa can also be grown successfully at a minimum temperature of 15o C per month. Others with an ideal temperature 16.60 C annual distribution is still good for the growth of cocoa as long as it is not found to the long rainy season. Based on climatic conditions in Indonesia temperature is 250-260 C average annual temperature without limited factor. Therefore, those areas are very suitable if the cultivation of cocoa. Lower temperature of 100 C demanded cocoa crop will lead to drying up of autumn leaves and flowers, so the growth rate decreases. High temperatures will encourage flowering, but then will fall. Flowering would be better if it took place at a temperature of 230 C. Likewise tempertur 26oC at night is still better effect on flowering of the temperature of 23o-300 C. The high temperatures over long periods of time affect seed weight. Tempertur relatively low will cause the cocoa beans contain lots of unsaturated fatty acids compared with high temperature. In the area of crop that has not produced as a result of crop damage from high temperatures during long periods of time marked by the death of shoots. Cocoa leaves are still tolerant to temperature 50o C for short durations. High Temperaturvyang necrossis causes symptoms on leaves. Sunshine Natural Environment cocoa plant is a tropical rain forest in pertumbuhanya require full shade to reduce exposure.

The sunlight is too many highlights cocoa crop will result in girth small, narrow leaves, and stems are relatively short. Utilization of sunlight as much as possible is intended to get the interception of light and achievement of optimum leaf area index. Cocoa pertained C3 plants that can photosynthesize at low leaf temperatures. Maximum photosynthesis were acquired during the exposure to the canopy by 20 percent of full lighting. Light saturation in the photosynthesis of each leaf that has opened up perfectly in the range of 30-30 percent of the sunlight or in 15 percent of a full sunlight. It is also related to greater stomatal opening when the sunlight is more acceptable.


Water and nutrient
Water and nutrients are key if which the cocoa will be planted with cover crops so that the system without constantly getting in full atahari rays.

Shade
Seedlings require shade cocoa because cocoa seeds will be slower growth in full sun exposure. Planting cocoa without protective currently actively studied and observed because it deals with the planting and maintenance costs. Planting done in the morning during the rainy season poorer better results if afternoon / evening rain fell compared with the rain which fell 2 days later. Thus, water and nutrients is the deciding factor when merupak where sunlight is used as much as possible for planting cocoa.

Land
Cocoa can be grown on various soil types, provided the chemical and physical requirements that play a role in the growth and yield of cocoa met.
Soil acidity, organic matter content, nutrients, adsorption capacity, and base saturation is the chemical properties that need attention, while his physical factor is the depth of effective, high-surface ground water, drainse, structure and konsesntensi soil. In addition, the slope of the land is also the physical properties that affect the growth and production of cocoa.

Chemical properties
Cocoa plants can grow well in soil that has a pH of 6-7.5 masaman no higher than 8, and no lower than 8.

Soil organic matter
High levels of organic matter will increase the rate of growth in the period before harvest. For that organic substances in soil layer 0-15 cm thick should be more than 3 percent. Levels are equivalent to 1.75 percent carbon element which can provide nutrients and water and loose soil structure.

To increase levels of organic substances can be used litter remaining fruit leather trimming and embedding cocoa. 900 kg of cocoa fruit skin provides nutrients 28 grams of urea, 9 kg P, 56.6 kg and 8 kg Kieserite Mo. We recommend that the lands would be planted at least cocoa also contains more calcium than 8 me per 100 grams of soil samples da calcium was greater than 0:24 per 100 grams at a depth of 0-15 cm

LAND PREPARATION AND SHADING
Land preparation and the shade should have been done a year before the cocoa crop is planted, so that when planted cocoa seedlings, shade plants in the field has been growing well and ready to function as a shade of cocoa. For shade plants, usually used Moghania macrophyla as temporary shade plants, and plants Gamal (Gliricidia sp) or Leucaena (Leucaena sp) as a shade plant and equipment. In addition it can also be used productively crops such as bananas as temporary shade, coconut as shade plants and equipment, or other plants.

Moghania macrophylla
As a temporary shade plant, Moghania macrophylla planted one year before planting cocoa, using a seed of about 20-30 kg / ha, and planted a row of north-south direction with the distance between rows in accordance with cocoa planting distance (eg 3 m). It is expected that at the time of planting cocoa, Moghania row has reached about 2.5 m high and the sun entering the hall where cocoa trees are planted on at 11.00 s / d
13:00. Moghania macrophylla plants to disiwing so alley becomes more loose. Every year at the beginning of the rainy season can be cut to a height of 10 cm from soil surface. At 4-year-old cocoa plants or when the cocoa canopy was close to each other, while shade plants Moghania this macrophylla didongkel entirely.

Gamal (Gliricidia sp) or Leucaena (Leucaena sp)
As a shade plant and equipment, Gamal (Gliricidia sp) or Leucaena (Leucaena sp) planted at the same time as planting shade, ie one year before planting cocoa. The plant material Gamal (Gliricidia sp) in the form of cutting length of 1.5 m and a diameter of about 5 cm, whereas

Leucaena (Leucaena sp) of grafts with a length of around 1 m. At first fixed shade plants grown with a spacing distance in accordance with cocoa (eg 3x3 m), and further reduced the population is systematically and gradually, when the 4-year-old cocoa plants didongkel 25%, and at the 5-year-old cocoa didongkel another 25 %.
Shade plant population remains Gamal or Leucaena were then maintained around 500-600 ph / ha to local precipitation type CD, and about 200-300 ph / ha to local precipitation of type AB.
Based on population, then at the beginning of the rainy season as much as 50% ditokok criss-cross, and the other 50% ditokok at the beginning of the next rainy season.

USE OF OTHER PLANTS AS shade
Productive plants and have economic value, which has a higher crown than the cocoa crop, land requirements have in common with the cocoa crop, and not be contradictory with the cocoa crop, can dimafaatkan to shade the cocoa plants.
Things to consider in the utilization of economically valuable plants is a good setting for competition between the planting of cacao with shade plants are cultivated as minimum-minimum, but these plants dapat.memberikan enough shade for cocoa trees

Banana (Musa paradisiaca)
The banana plant can dimanfatkan as a temporary shade plant in the cultivation of cocoa. Banana plants can be planted with spacing of 6x3 m, so that the banana crop in the corridor north-south direction can be planted 2 rows of cocoa with a spacing of 3x3 m. As a temporary shade plants, banana plants can be planted 6-12 months before planting cocoa. Furthermore, banana groves to be regulated by maintaining only 2-3 tillers. Banana plants can be maintained until year 4 or in accordance with the purposes with due regard to the level of penaungannya to plant cocoa. Good planting cocoa with bananas as a temporary shade plant can be described as follows:

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Information
- Spacing cocoa 3 x 3 m (1100 ph / ha)
- Spacing coconut 6 x 3 m (550 ph / ha)
Rows of north-south direction

Coconut (Cocos nucifera)
Coconut plants can be used as a shade plant and equipment for the cocoa crop. In this case must be set for a minimum of competition.
Spread the roots of most cocoa until a radius of 1 m and spread of coconut root of the most up to radius 2 m, and therefore need to be made tatatanam to the distance between the cocoa and coconut at least 3 m. With a spacing of 10x10 m and coconut
4x2 m spacing cocoa in coconut gawangan north-south, it can be obtained by planting with adequate plant population is the ph 1 000 cocoa trees / ha and oil 100 pH / ha. As the shade of cocoa, coconut shade function can be adjusted by doing siwingan (clipping) midrib when penaungannya too dark, especially during the rainy season. Similarly, the coconut trees that were old enough and tall, if penaungannya less can be added other shade plants such as the diagonal lamtoro planted in coconut plantations.

Good planting in the use of coconut as shade cocoa can
prepared as the following picture
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Information
- Spacing cocoa 4x2 m (1000 ph / ha)
- Spacing coconut 10x10 m (100 ph / ha)
- Distance cocoa-coconut 3 m

Woody plants and other crops
Woody plants or other plants that have economic value can also be used as a shade, the plant broke in, or crop edge in the cultivation of cocoa. Plant Teak (Tectona grandis) and Sengon (Albisia falcata) can be used as garden plants or plant sidelines edge on cocoa plantations. In the planting of cocoa is still utilized Leucaena shade or Gamal, while teak and Sengon planted in rows of two lines (double row) 3 x 2 m with the distance between the rows of teak or sengon 24-30 m. By tatatanam thus formed alley between sengon teak or mahogany, which can be planted with cocoa Tanama 3x3 m In this case teak, sengon or woody plants that others can function as a plant or plant pematah shade and wind.

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Information
- Spacing cocoa (3 x 3) m
- Spacing Teak (3 x 2) x 24-30 m
- Spacing Sengon (3 X 2) mx 24-30 m

The development of the cocoa crop should still consider the suitability of their land. As tree which require shade in cultivation before planting cacao need land preparation and excellent shade. Without a shade of good preparation, the development of the cocoa crop will be difficult to expect success. For shade plants cocoa, you can use plants that have economic value such as shade while banana and coconut as a permanent shade and teak. sengon, or any other plant as the plant garden edge blocks. The use of shade needs to be compiled in tatatanam the right time, so it can provide the optimal production and
land conservation benefits. Land preparation, preparation of seedlings, and at planting should be done with proper planning, so that at the time of planting, seedlings ready for planting cocoa, and shade plants in the field ready to function as a shade.
Furthermore, with proper cultivation techniques will be obtained cacao plants with good growth and high production

Land Preparation
- Clean up weeds and other weeds
- Use also used for cover crops such as Leucaena, Gleresidae and Albazia, this crop is planted year before the planting of cocoa and in the third year the number decreased down to 1 to 3 trees shade trees cocoa (1: 3).

Cleaning the area carried out beginning from the survey / measurement until the stage of weed control. Implementation of surveys / measurements usually lasted for a month. At this stage, the implementation of the project includes mapping of topography, soil type distribution, and the determination limit of the area to be planted. Hasi survey will be very important to stage another job, even in the case of cocoa planting and maintenance


Nurseries
- Before dikecambahkan seeds must first be cleaned flesh by rubbing ash
- Soak beans in Biotama 1, to accelerate the period of dormancy
- Cocoa beans dikecambahkan with gunny sacks in the room, every day watered 2 times a day (morning and afternoon)
- Meanwhile, prepare polybag size 30 x 20 cm, fill with soil and manure (1: 1) are made using Biotama 3
- Sprout moved to Polybag if 2-3 days is over 50% germination
- Every 2 to 3 weeks Biotama seedlings sprayed with a mixture of 1 and water (1 bottle caps Biotama first dissolved in water 1 liter) in the morning (before 7 am) or afternoon (after 16.00) after the sun began to dim.
- Cocoa beans for seed is taken from the middle of a ripe fruit and healthier than plants that were old enough
- Before seed grow must be cleaned first with ash flesh
- Because cocoa beans had no rest period (dormancy), it must immediately grown
- Germination with gunny sacks in the room, done watering 3 times a day
- Prepare a polybag size 30 x 20 cm (0.8 cm thick) and nurseries
- Mix the soil with manure (1: 1), insert in the polybag
- Before the sprouts put add 1 gram of TSP / SP-36 into the individual polybags
- Seeds can be used to germinate seeds if 2-3 days over 50%
- The distance between polybags of 20 x 20 cm width 100 cm row
- High shade tailor-made so that incoming light is not too much
- Watering of seedlings performed 1-2 times a day
- Weeding weeds look at the state nursery
- Fertilization with NPK (2: 1: 2) doses according to age of seedlings, age 1 month: 1 g / seedling, 2 months, 2 g / seedling, 3 months: 3 g / seedling, 4 months: 4 g / seedling. Fertilization by means ditugal
- Spacing roof shade starting at the age of 3 months removed 50% until the age of 4 months
- Observe pests and diseases in nurseries, among others, termites, leaf ladybugs, caterpillars inch, white back caterpillars, and caterpillars fire

Cultivation
a. Buffer Cocoa Plant
- Buffer is made from bamboo height 80-100 cm
- Replace the main buffer as a benchmark in the next buffer
- To align the buffer to use the rope in order to obtain the same spacing

b. Planting hole
- The size of planting holes 60 x 60 x 60 cm at the end of the rainy season
- Give manure mixed with soil (1:1) plus 1-5 grams of TSP fertilizer per hole

c. Planting Seeds
- At the time of cacao seedlings planted the shade trees have been growing well and the shade while the 1 year old
- Planting cocoa with intercropping system does not need shade, such as intercropping with coconut trees
- Seedlings transferred to the field in accordance with its type, for cocoa seedlings planted after Noble 6 months of age, Cocoa Lindak age 4-5 months
- Planting time is enough rain and shade should be perfect preparation. When the transfer of cocoa seeds should not form the middle of young leaves (flush)
At the end of the rainy season, create a planting hole with size 60 x 60 x 60 cm, provide manure (which is made with Biotama 3) of 0.5 to 1 kg / hole. Before planting seedlings confirmed that shade plants already have a plant height of about 1 to 1.5 m.

Plant Maintenance
a. Watering is done in 2 times a day (morning and evening) as much as 2-5 liters / tree
b.Dibuat fertilizer around the plant hole with the way dikoak. Fertilizer included in the manure pit and then closed again. Dose of fertilizer have seen in the table next to this:

Table Fertilization Cocoa Plant

AGE
(Months)
Macro fertilizer (per ha)
Urea
(Kg)
TSP
(kg)
MOP / KCl (kg)
Kieserite (MgSO4)
(Kg)

2

15

15

8

8

6

15

15

8

8

10

25

25

12

12

14

30

30

15

15

18

30

30

45

15

22

30

30

45

15

28

160

250

250

60

32

160

200

250

60

36

140

250

250

80

42

140

200

250

80

Dst

Soil analysis

Pest & Disease Control
a. Silkworm span (Hyposidea infixaria; Family: Geometridae), attacked at the age of 2-4 months. The attack caused severe leaf veins stay young leaves only. Control by PESTONA dose 5-10 cc / liter.

b. Silkworm Jaran / Horse (Dasychira inclusa, Familia: Limanthriidae), there are hairs on the dorsalnya itch like a feather (the hair) on the neck of a horse, is at the marke 4 and 5 are white or black, brown or brown caterpillars are blackish . Control with natural enemies and predators mendosa Carcelia Apanteles spp, spray PESTONA.

c. Parasa lepida and Ploneta diducta (Silkworm Srengenge), carried out the attack after another because both species are quite different life cycles and how to put kokonnya, so that future development will interchangeably. The highest attack on the young leaves, buds which is central to life and flowers are still young. Lifecycle Ploneta diducta 1 month, Parasa lepida longer than the Ploneta diducta. Control by PESTONA.

d. Lice - alliance (Pseudococcus lilacinus), a white flea. Symbiosis with black ants. Attack symptoms: infection at the base of the fruit in a protected place, further destruction to parts of the fruit is still small, stunted fruit and eventually dry up and die. Control: plants mowed and burned attacked by natural enemies of predators; Scymus sp, black ant, parasites Coccophagus pseudococci Natural BVR 30 g / 10 liters of water or PESTONA.

e. Helopeltis antonii, jabbed ovipositor to lay their eggs in young fruit, if there is no pest attack young fruit buds and young shoots. The adults are black, medium red chest, resembling the horns look straight. Feature of the attack, the fruit skin is black blotches and dry, stunted the growth of fruit, fruit stiff and very hard and ugly shape and small fruit dry and then die. Control is carried out with dose PESTONA 5-10 cc / lt (in fruit infected), the first day spray imago stage, day-to-7 carried out tests on eggs and on the 17th day are made to the nymphs who are still alive, so that truly effective control , field sanitation, disposal of infected fruit.

f. Mot cacao (fruit moth), Acrocercops cranerella (Family; Lithocolletidae). Fruits attacked by a great young, pale yellow color, seeds in the fruit can not expand and sticky. Control: environmental sanitation garden, fruit chocolate covered with a plastic bag that the bottom remains open (kondomisasi), the release of natural enemies of black ants and the fungus Beauveria bassiana antagonist (BVR) by spraying, spray with PESTONA.

g. Fruit Rot Diseases (Phytopthora palmivora), symptoms of an attack from the tip of the fruit or fruit appears brown at the base of the fruit that has large and small fruit would soon die. Control: remove fruit attacked and burned, regular pruning, spray with Natural GLIO.

h. Mushroom Upas (Upasia salmonicolor), attack the trunk and branches. Control: scrape and paint the stem or branch fell ill with Natural GLIO + HORMONIK, regular trimming, continue attacks cut and then burned.
Note: If a pest control using natural pesticides can not cope with the recommended use of chemical pesticides. To be more evenly spraying of chemical pesticides and are not easily lost by rainwater add Adhesives Straighten AERO 810, dose + 5 ml (1 / 2 cap) / tank.


Pruning
- Pruning branches aimed at the establishment of a balanced and good vegetative growth. Tree guards are also made for branch and leaf pruning grow tall and good. Trimming there are several kinds:
- Prune Form, do the age of 1 year after emerging primary branch (jorquet) or until age 2 years with 3 branches leaving a good primer and located symmetrical.
- Crop Care, aims to reduce excessive vegetative growth of shoots by removing water (wiwilan) in the main trunk or branches.
- Crop production, aiming for the light to enter but not directly so the flower can be formed. Crop is depending on the circumstances and seasons, thus no heavy crop in the rainy and mild in the dry season crop.
Trim Restoration, cutting the damaged part of the plant and maintain shoot water or can be done by side budding.

Harvest
Flowers cocoa, as other members of the Sterculiaceae, grew directly from the trunk (cauliflorous). The perfect flowers are small (maximum diameter 3cm), a single, but it is strung because often a number of flower buds emerge from a single point.

Cocoa flowers grow from the stem.
Flower pollination by insects (especially of small flies (Midge) Forcipomyia, winged ants, aphids, and some bees TRIGONA) which usually occurs at night hari1. Ready flowers pollinated within a few days.
Cocoa is generally cross-pollinated plants and have the self-incompatibility system (see pollination). However, some cocoa varieties capable of self-pollinating and producing commodities with higher selling value.
The fruit grows from the pollinated flowers. Fruit size is much larger than the flowers, and round to elongated. The fruit consists of 5 leaves and fruit have the space and in it there are seeds. Fruit color changes. When young green to purple. If the outer skin of ripe fruit is usually yellow.

When picking prepare rorak rorak and coordination-picking. Picking carried out on a ripe fruit but not too ripe. Cut the fruit stalks with leaves 1 / 3 part of the fruit stalk. Picking up the base of the fruit will damage the bearings of interest so that the formation of interest disrupted and if this is done continuously, the fruit production will decline. The fruit is plucked age 5.5-6 months of flowering, yellow or red. Fruit that has been plucked included in sacks and gathered near rorak. Picking done in the morning and afternoon solving. Solving the fruit with a bang on the stone to crack. Then, seeds removed and placed in sacks, was included in rorak leather available.

Processing Results
Seeds strung on the placenta that grows from the base of the fruit, on the inside. Seeds are protected by the coated seeds (aryl), soft white. In terms of agriculture called the pulp. Endospermia seeds contain fat with a high enough level. In the post-harvest processing, pulp fermented for three days and then dried seeds in the sun
Fermentation, the initial stage of processing cocoa beans. Aims to simplify remove the pulp, eliminating the ability to grow grain, seed color change and get the aroma and taste delicious.
Drying, which has been fermented cocoa beans are dried to prevent mildew attacked by direct sunlight (day 7-9) or with a heating stove at 60-700C (60-100 hours). A good water content of less than 6%.
Sorting, to obtain a certain measure of cocoa beans on demand. Terms of quality fermented cocoa beans is not a maximum of 3%, maximum 7% moisture content, pest and disease attack a maximum of 3% and free of dirt.

Greetings farmer
abstracted by

Dwi Hartoyo, SP

REFERENCES
http://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kakao
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http://pse.litbang.deptan.go.id/ind/pdffiles/WP_44_2004.pdf
http://berita.kapanlagi.com/ekonomi/nasional/deptan-lepas-varietas-kakao-baru-e3hhj1l.html
http://era89.wordpress.com/category/tentang-kakao/
http://www.disbunbali.info/komoditi_unggulan.php?id_komoditi_unggulan=3
http://www.disbunbali.info/komoditi_unggulan.php?id_komoditi_unggulan=3
http://www.facebook.com/pages/Kakao/107700325925868
http://aciar.gov.au/system/files/node/11227/ACIAR-SADI_UPDATE_1.1_TRANS_v2.pdf
http://www.tribunnews.com/2010/05/03/70.000-ton-kakao-numpuk-tak-diekspor
http://agromedia.net/Pertanian/Perkebunan/Panduan-Lengkap-Budi-Daya-Kakao/Detailed-product-flyer.html
http://www.mail-archive.com/agromania @ yahoogroups.com/msg00037.html
http://www.sawahlunto.go.id/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=85:budidaya-kakao&catid
http://disbun.kuansing.go.id/_uploads//2010/06/doc1.pdf
http://www.smecda.com/Files/Budidaya/pengemb&pengolahan_kakao.pdf
http://peluangusaha.kontan.co.id/v2/read/peluangusaha/46407/Budidaya-kakao-semanis-buah-cokelatnya-1

 

 

 

 

 

 

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