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CULTIVATION
LONG BEANS
Vigna spp

 

Mention the world community by the name Yardlong Beans / Cow Peas. Germplasm of chickpea comes from India and China. As for the suspect comes from the African continent region. Uci bean germplasm (Vigna umbellata) were found growing wild in the Himalayan region of India, while the cowpea germplasm (Vigna unguiculata) is native to Africa. Therefore, long bean plant vine types originated from the tropics and Africa, especially Abbisinia and Ethiopia. The most rapid development in the hot climate of tropical countries like Indonesia.

Long beans often appear in our dishes daily. Besides being easily obtained, long beans can also be processed into a wide range of cuisine. Besides being easily cooked, can be pan-fried or made part of other dishes. Long beans also have a variety of benefits that are good for health.
Long bean or vigna sinensis, easily found in fields, in gardens, courtyard houses, in fields or other crops as a distraction. The treatment is easy, making this one easy plants planted. On young bean when eaten crisp and delicious raw engulfed.

Investment Center
Sentra planting long beans is dominated by the island of Java, especially West Java, Central Java, East Java, South Sulawesi, DI Aceh, North Sumatra, Lampung and Bengkulu.

Plant Type

Botanical classification of bean plants are as follows:

Scientific classification of plants Long Beans
Kingdom: Plant
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Fabales
Family: Fabaceae
Upafamili: Faboideae
Genus: Vigna
Species: V. unguiculata
Upaspesies: V u. sesquipedalis

Trinomial name
Vigna unguiculata sesquipedalis
(L.) Verdc.

These plants form root nodules that fix of nitrogen, so fertilizer N to these crops can be reduced.

Species commonly cultivated bean which include:
Long bean vine types (V. sinensis var. Sesquipedalis) which we know as ordinary beans. Varieties grown are varieties KP1 and KP2, local varieties Navan, no Cikole 1494, Subang, Super Subang, Subang green Intestine etc.
Upright type of bean cowpea / Tolo / dadap / broom (V. unguiculata L.), and peanut uci / ondel (V. umbellata). Superior varieties is the KT1, KT2, KT3.
Chickpea hybrids (V. sinensis ssp. Hybridus) such as nuts bushitao. No varieties are released. 10 / a, 12 / a, 13 / a, 14 / a, 17 / a, 18 / a and EG BS / 2.

Long Nuts Nutrition: Vitamins A, B1, B2 and C, protein, thiamine, riboflavin, phosphorus, iron, potassium folate, magnesium, manganese, calories, sodium, carbohydrates, calcium.

Benefits of Plants
Pod-shaped fruit is a source of protein, energy and minerals that are useful to meet the nutrient.
Contains beta-carotene, chlorophyll, vitamins B1 and B2, and pectin fiber. Vegetables are useful for controlling blood sugar levels, hypertension, reduced the risk of stroke and heart attack, improve digestive organ function, lower cancer risk, helps to overcome constipation, and is diuretic properties (peluruh pee) medium level.

In some countries, long beans are used to treat rheumatism, arthritis, and urinary tract disorders. Vegetables are efficacious to keep the skin of acne problems, help the recovery of burns, bullets urine, diarrhea, eczema, kidney disorders, itching, etc..

In addition, he is also an antioxidant, antiviral, antibacterial, urinary tract disorders, and improving spleen function. Of course, more importantly, can improve the function of red blood cells, cure beri-beri, dengue fever, overcoming back pain, and less blood.

Not only the fruit, which can provide benefits. Bean leaves, it also provides many benefits. Where to shed the urine, can be taken 50 grams of fresh bean leaves. The materials are then washed. Then boiled in two cups of water about 30 minutes. Once cool, filtered water and taken twice a day, at morning and evening.

According to another study, long beans can also be to destroy kidney stones, prevent abnormal antibodies, improve the function of the spleen, improve the pooling of DNA and RNA, increase red blood cell function, beri-beri, dengue fever, anemia, back pain, arthritis, swelling, increased appetite, and difficult defecation


GROWTH CONDITIONS

Climate

a) The temperature should ideally between 20-30 degrees C.
b) Place the open (get full sun).
c) The climate is dry, rainfall between 600-1500 mm / year.

Growing Media

a) Almost any type of land suitable for cultivation of beans, but it is best to land Latosol / sandy loam, fertile, friable, many containing organic matter and good drainage.
b) Soil acidity (pH) of approximately 5.5 to 6.5. When the pH is too alkaline (above pH 6.5) led to the outbreak of root nodules-nodules.

Altitude Venue

These plants grow and produce well in the lowlands and highlands of ± 1500 m asl, but the best in the lowlands. Planting in the uplands, the age of relatively long harvest from the time of planting, production and productivity level is lower when compared with the lowlands. Optimum altitude is less than 800 m above sea level.


TECHNICAL GUIDELINES FOR RAISING NUT LENGTH

Nurseries LONG BEAN

Terms of bean seeds
Bean seeds of good and quality are as follows: Appearances pithy / dull, high germination of over 85%, is not damaged / defective, do not contain any outbreaks of pests and disease. Purposes of seed for 1 hectare of between 15-20 kg.

Preparation of Seeds
Seeds do not planted specifically, but the seed planted directly in the prepared planting hole.

Media Processing Plant
Formation of beds

Beds with a size of 1 to 1.2 m or formed guludan guludan spaced 1 m.
Land cleared of weeds, hoeing / plowed as deep as 30 cm to the soil became loose. Create a moat around, let the soil dry for 15-30 days. After 30 days make the beds with 60-80 cm width, distance between beds of 30 cm, height 30 cm, length depending on the land. For system wide basis guludan 30-40 cm and width of 30-50 cm, height 30 cm and the distance between guludan 30-40 cm.

Calcification
Calcification done if the soil pH is lower than 5.5 with the dose depending on soil acidity. Provide agricultural lime in the form of calcite, dolomite, or zeagro of 1-2 tons / ha depending on the initial pH and the amount of aluminum. Lime mixed evenly with the soil at a depth of 30 cm.

Fertilization
At the time of the formation of beds or guludan add 10-20 tons / ha manure / organic fertilizer TW Super Plus, with a dose of 4-5 tons / ha mixed evenly with the ground while inverted

Planting Technique

Determination of Planting Pattern
Proximity to the type of vine planting hole is 20 x 50 cm, 40 x 60 cm, 30 x 40 cm. And spacing of vertical type is 20 x 40 cm and 30 x 60 cm. Good planting time is early dry season / early rainy season, but can be throughout the season from adequate soil water.

How Long Beans Planting
Seed put into the planting hole as much as 2 seed, cover with a thin soil / ash kitchen.

Bean seed needs 21-23 kg / ha, especially for varieties of KP-01 10.5 kg / ha for planting distance of KP-01 seeds are larger and lighter weight. Before planting is done first made in a way ditugal planting hole with 25 cm spacing within rows and between rows of 1 m. Perlubang filled 2 seed planting, it is meant in a lanjaran maximum of 4 plants. After the seed is planted, covered with soil / manure which had its soft crumb or it could be ash.

Plant Maintenance
Stitching

Bean seeds will grow 3-5 days later. Seeds do not grow embroidered immediately.

Installation Lanjaran
Lanjaran is wood or bamboo that is useful to help the plant is above ground level; Lanjaran help plants to grow and propagate according to the path that has been made
Installation lanjaran done 10-15 days after transplanting (DAT), approximately 15-25 cm plant height. Installation of between 2 lanjaran planting hole so that the distance between lanjaran 50 cm. Every 5 lanjaran need plus lanjaran / strengthened, by the way cross mounted.

Rope Installation
Installation of rope lanjaran performed after installation is complete. Ropes useful help guide / merambatkan plants. Installation of the rope has two phases. Phase I at an altitude of ± 70 cm from lanjaran. Phase II at an altitude of ± 150 cm from lanjaran

Set the direction of propagation of cucumber plants
Aiming to drive growth in both plant shoots and branches of plant crops. It is expected that the lanjaran vines and ropes that had been installed, so the fruit / pod was not lying on the ground

Weeding
Weeding done in the old plants 2-3 weeks after planting, depending on the growth of grass in the garden. Weeding by pulling weeds / cleaning with tools kored. Weeding made prior to fertilization, or done at any time when weeds interfere with crop growth was

Trimming / Perempalan
Long beans that are too dense to be held pruning leaves and stem tip. Plants that are too dense to inhibit the growth of flowers.

Fertilization
Basic Fertilizers
Long bean vine type: Urea TSP 150 kg + 100 kg + 100 kg / ha.
Long beans upright type: 22,5 kg Urea + TSP + KCl 45 kg 45 kg / ha.
Nuts hybrid: 85 kg 310-420 kg Urea + TSP + 210 kg KCl / ha.

First fertilization (I) do age ± 12 days with a dose of ZA = 50 kg / ha, SP-36 = 100 kg / ha, KCL = 50 kg / ha. Fertilization was done by ditugal, the distance is 5 cm from the planting hole. Then covered with soil. The second fertilization (ll) do age ± 28 days with fertilizer NPK = 200 kg / ha with a distance of 10 cm from the planting hole. Third Fertilization (III) conducted ± 40 days of age also with fertilizer NPK = 200 kg / ha with a distance of 10 cm from the planting hole.

Manure fertilizer is given in the hole located on either side of the planting hole. The amount of fertilizer given to a plant depends on plant spacing.
Supplementary Fertilizer
Supplementary fertilizer plant bean vine type, given 4 weeks after planting, fertilizer form of urea 150 kg / ha. Meanwhile, aftershocks fertilizer for beans upright type is given 4 weeks after planting, in the form of urea fertilizer 85 kg / ha.

Irrigation
In the early phases of seed growth until the young plants, watering be done routinely every day. Next Watering depends musim.Pengairan given as needed, the most important crops are not maintained for excess or shortage of water. Watering should be done after fertilization done. Whereas in the rainy season, irrigation water is from rain.

Pest and Disease Long Beans

Long Bean Pests

Bean fly (Ophiomya phaseoli Tryon)
Symptoms: We have white spots around the bone of leaves, stunted growth of infected plants and leaves yellowish, base of the stem occurs secondary roots and swollen. Control: crop rotation in a way that is not from family nuts and spraying with insecticide Orthene 75 SP 1 cc / liter.


Aphids (Aphis cracivora Koch)
Symptoms: delayed growth due to pests suck plant cell fluids and declining yields. Lice clustered at the top of the plant and act as a viral vector. Control: with crop rotation with crops rather than family nuts and spraying insecticide Carbofuran Furadan 3G and 80 kg / ha.
Aphids attack sp. similar to thrips attack, only, the difference if the attack Aphids, leaves turned black because of growing mushrooms that grow on dung soot Aphids. Apids can be controlled by Winder, Supracide etc., with the recommended dose.


Armyworm (Spodoptera litura F.)
Symptoms: leaf perforated with uncertain size, heavy attack in the dry season, also attack pods. Control: with peraikan technical culture, crop rotation, planting in unison, chemical pest traps and insecticide Suoracide .1 to 0.2%.


Grain borer (Callosobruchus maculatus L.)
Symptoms: seeds were damaged with holes, crushed to 90%. Control: to clean up and destroy the remnants of plant pests hiding place. Chickpea seeds treated with corn oil 10 cc / kg of seed.


Silkworm interest (Maruca testualis)
Symptoms: The larvae attack the flowers are open, then eat the pod. Control: with crop rotation and maintain a healthy garden of plant remains. Sprayed with an effective insecticide such as Sevin in concentration 0.1% -0.2%.
Caterpillar pests cause loss in interest rates. pods and larvae cause damage to the pod. This damage is caused due to decomposition of the mikoorganisme activity originating from the silkworm excrement. These pests can be controlled using a dose Winder accordance with the recommendations.

Thrips
Thrips attack the shoots of plants so the plants become frizzy and dry, often attack the buds or shoots, since the plants are still small to large. Characteristic of mature plants can result in loss of interest and the attack occurred in the dry season. Control of thrips with pesticides Winder, Promectin, Agrimec, Confidor etc with the recommended dose.

Mites (mites)
Plants that are attacked by mites will be visible from the leaves that curl downward, and blackish green color. In severe conditions, plants can suffer from loss of leaves. Control by using Samite, ommittee, Mitac with the recommended dose.

 

Peanut Disease Length

Antraknose
Cause: The fungus Colletotricum lindemuthianum. Symptoms: The attack can be observed on new seedlings berkecamabah, a kind of cancer is brown on the stem and seed pieces. Control: with crop rotation, seed treatment before planting with the fungicide Dithane M-45 and OB 21 Cupravit 0.1 to 0.2% and removing weeds from around plants.

Mosaic disease
Cause: Cowpea aphid virus Borne Virus / CaMV. Symptoms: the young leaves are the color mosaic image does not irregular. The disease is transmitted by vector aphids. Control: by using the seeds of healthy and virus-free, sprayed with an effective insecticide for aphids and plants deprived attacked and burned.


Broom disease Satan
Cause: The Witches-broom virus Cowpea Virus / Cowpea Stunt Virus. Symptoms: stunted plant growth, the joints (the books) is very short stem, axillary shoots shortened and formed a "broom". Aphids transmitted diseases. Control: same with mosaic disease control.


Bacterial wilt and wilt fungus
Cause: Pseudomonas solanacearum EF Smith. Symptoms: plants suddenly wilt and die plant menyeabkan heavy attack. Control: with crop rotation, drainage improvements and remove dead plants.
This disease is caused by the fungus Pytium bias and by Pseudomonas sp. This disease can be prevented by kocor with Kocide 77, or by spray. While the control bacteria with kocor Bactomycin or Agrimycin with the recommended dose

 

Harvest

Characteristics and Harvest Time
Bean harvest distinguished two kinds, namely young pods and pod harvest parents or the seeds.
Harvest young pods
Performed on the type of bean lanjaran (vine type) and nut busitao (vertical type). Distinctive pods ready for harvest is already the maximum size of peas, easily broken and the seeds in the pods do not stand out the best harvest time in the morning / afternoon. Age of plants ready for harvest from 3.5 to 4 months


Harvest old pod
Performed on an upright kind of bean types, such as cowpea and peanut uci and busitao. The characteristics of cowpea pods are ready for harvest is already quite old-pods, seeds prominent and yellowish green outer skin. Age 3 to 3.5 months of harvest and harvest time in the morning / afternoon.
Harvest the seeds and the harvest was taken after the pod is brown and the plant about 60-70 days. Harvest is done by picking the old pods and seeds have started to harden. Then dried in the sun on tarps or created by-the place is hot. Once dry dipipil with thresher tools, seeds are also the manual way that is dupukul / digebug. Dried shelled beans results again and sorted, to separate the good seed with the bad seeds (hollow, kepeng, small)

How to Harvest Nuts Long
How to harvest the bean crop types propagate by cutting the fruit stalk with a sharp knife. As for the bean type upright stake with how to pull / cut stem 10-15 cm tall plant from the soil surface.

Estimated Production
Young pod production per unit area can reach at least 2.0 tonnes / ha, depending on varieties. On varieties of KP-I can up to 6.2 tonnes / ha and KP-2 by 2.1 tons / ha. And production of long beans upright type ranged from 2.0 to 5.0 tons of dry beans.

Postharvest Long Beans

Collection
After harvest, long bean pods are collected in a shelter, then washed and drained. For old pods after collected, then dried with dried peas to the water content of 12-14%.

Sorting
Separating young pod with the damaged good. To target export markets, quality criteria for young pods are at least 20 cm pod size, pod maturity level of young people belong, the appearance of seeds not prominent and the color green and fresh. As for the old pod separated from the skin dry peas and beans are dried to 12% -14% water content.

Storage
In order to maintain the freshness of peas, temporary storage prior to shipping should be in the shade. Use crushed ice / refrigerator, while the old pods stored in cans and placed in a dry and well ventilated.


Packaging and Transportation

Long bean pods tied with a maximum weight of 1 kg. Institute packed in gunny sacks ventilated / polytelyne packed in plastic bags. Conveyances used to the way bear, using service vehicles / other transport equipment. For older pods are packed in sealed cans. Before placing in the container should first be mixed with corn oil in order to avoid grain borer.

Handling the long beans in the form of packaging old pods are as follows:
a) Combine beans with corn oil (10 cc / kg seed).
b) The seed nuts are placed in a clean container and sealed.
c) bean seeds stored in a dry and clean rooms.

Agribusiness Opportunity Overview
Long bean in Indonesia is the subject of everyday merchandise. Administrative long beans very diverse, which served for a variety of cuisines ranging from raw to cooked forms. Economic and social prospects are very bright green beans, long beans, so cultivation is promising.

In recent years a lot of demand for both domestic and overseas, where demand is not met. Long beans are also promoted as a source of protein and minerals. Thus, these vegetables attract consumers who understand the meaning of the nutritional value and food quality.

Packaging
Long bean pods tied with a maximum weight of 1 kg. Institute packed in gunny sacks ventilated / polytelyne packed in plastic bags. For older pods are packed in sealed cans. Before placing in the container should first be mixed with corn oil in order to avoid grain borer.

Branding on the outside basket by giving a label with the inscription as follows:
a) The name of the goods.
b) Type of quality.
c) Name / Code companies or exporters.
d of) Production of Indonesia.
e) Country / place of destination.

Greetings farmer
Summarized by

Dwi Hartoyo, SP

REFERENCE LONG BEAN CULTIVATION
a. http://dimasadityaperdana.blogspot.com/2009/04/budidaya-kacang-panjang.html
b. http://tekben-vedcapolije.blogspot.com/2009/04/budidaya-kacang-panjang.html
c. http://teknis-budidaya.blogspot.com/2007/10/budidaya-kacang-panjang.html
d. http://banten.litbang.deptan.go.id/ind/
e. http://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kacang_panjang

 

 

 

 

 

 

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