Mention the world community
by the name Yardlong Beans / Cow Peas. Germplasm
of chickpea comes from India and China. As
for the suspect comes from the African continent
region. Uci bean germplasm (Vigna umbellata)
were found growing wild in the Himalayan region
of India, while the cowpea germplasm (Vigna
unguiculata) is native to Africa. Therefore,
long bean plant vine types originated from the
tropics and Africa, especially Abbisinia and
Ethiopia. The most rapid development in the
hot climate of tropical countries like Indonesia.
Long beans often appear in
our dishes daily. Besides being easily obtained,
long beans can also be processed into a wide
range of cuisine. Besides being easily cooked,
can be pan-fried or made part of other dishes.
Long beans also have a variety of benefits that
are good for health.
Long bean or vigna sinensis, easily found in
fields, in gardens, courtyard houses, in fields
or other crops as a distraction. The treatment
is easy, making this one easy plants planted.
On young bean when eaten crisp and delicious
Sentra planting long beans is dominated by the
island of Java, especially West Java, Central
Java, East Java, South Sulawesi, DI Aceh, North
Sumatra, Lampung and Bengkulu.
classification of bean plants are as follows:
classification of plants Long Beans
Species: V. unguiculata
Upaspesies: V u. sesquipedalis
Vigna unguiculata sesquipedalis
These plants form root nodules
that fix of nitrogen, so fertilizer N to these
crops can be reduced.
Species commonly cultivated
bean which include:
Long bean vine types (V. sinensis var. Sesquipedalis)
which we know as ordinary beans. Varieties grown
are varieties KP1 and KP2, local varieties Navan,
no Cikole 1494, Subang, Super Subang, Subang
green Intestine etc.
Upright type of bean cowpea / Tolo / dadap /
broom (V. unguiculata L.), and peanut uci /
ondel (V. umbellata). Superior varieties is
the KT1, KT2, KT3.
Chickpea hybrids (V. sinensis ssp. Hybridus)
such as nuts bushitao. No varieties are released.
10 / a, 12 / a, 13 / a, 14 / a, 17 / a, 18 /
a and EG BS / 2.
Long Nuts Nutrition:
Vitamins A, B1, B2 and C, protein, thiamine,
riboflavin, phosphorus, iron, potassium folate,
magnesium, manganese, calories, sodium, carbohydrates,
Benefits of Plants
Pod-shaped fruit is a source of protein, energy
and minerals that are useful to meet the nutrient.
Contains beta-carotene, chlorophyll, vitamins
B1 and B2, and pectin fiber. Vegetables are
useful for controlling blood sugar levels, hypertension,
reduced the risk of stroke and heart attack,
improve digestive organ function, lower cancer
risk, helps to overcome constipation, and is
diuretic properties (peluruh pee) medium level.
In some countries, long beans
are used to treat rheumatism, arthritis, and
urinary tract disorders. Vegetables are efficacious
to keep the skin of acne problems, help the
recovery of burns, bullets urine, diarrhea,
eczema, kidney disorders, itching, etc..
In addition, he is also an
antioxidant, antiviral, antibacterial, urinary
tract disorders, and improving spleen function.
Of course, more importantly, can improve the
function of red blood cells, cure beri-beri,
dengue fever, overcoming back pain, and less
Not only the fruit, which can
provide benefits. Bean leaves, it also provides
many benefits. Where to shed the urine, can
be taken 50 grams of fresh bean leaves. The
materials are then washed. Then boiled in two
cups of water about 30 minutes. Once cool, filtered
water and taken twice a day, at morning and
According to another study,
long beans can also be to destroy kidney stones,
prevent abnormal antibodies, improve the function
of the spleen, improve the pooling of DNA and
RNA, increase red blood cell function, beri-beri,
dengue fever, anemia, back pain, arthritis,
swelling, increased appetite, and difficult
a) The temperature should ideally
between 20-30 degrees C.
b) Place the open (get full sun).
c) The climate is dry, rainfall between 600-1500
mm / year.
a) Almost any type of land
suitable for cultivation of beans, but it is
best to land Latosol / sandy loam, fertile,
friable, many containing organic matter and
b) Soil acidity (pH) of approximately 5.5 to
6.5. When the pH is too alkaline (above pH 6.5)
led to the outbreak of root nodules-nodules.
These plants grow and produce
well in the lowlands and highlands of ±
1500 m asl, but the best in the lowlands. Planting
in the uplands, the age of relatively long harvest
from the time of planting, production and productivity
level is lower when compared with the lowlands.
Optimum altitude is less than 800 m above sea
TECHNICAL GUIDELINES FOR RAISING NUT
Nurseries LONG BEAN
Terms of bean seeds
Bean seeds of good and quality are as follows:
Appearances pithy / dull, high germination of
over 85%, is not damaged / defective, do not
contain any outbreaks of pests and disease.
Purposes of seed for 1 hectare of between 15-20
Preparation of Seeds
Seeds do not planted specifically, but the seed
planted directly in the prepared planting hole.
Media Processing Plant
Formation of beds
Beds with a size of 1 to 1.2 m or formed guludan
guludan spaced 1 m.
Land cleared of weeds, hoeing / plowed as deep
as 30 cm to the soil became loose. Create a
moat around, let the soil dry for 15-30 days.
After 30 days make the beds with 60-80 cm width,
distance between beds of 30 cm, height 30 cm,
length depending on the land. For system wide
basis guludan 30-40 cm and width of 30-50 cm,
height 30 cm and the distance between guludan
Calcification done if the soil pH is lower than
5.5 with the dose depending on soil acidity.
Provide agricultural lime in the form of calcite,
dolomite, or zeagro of 1-2 tons / ha depending
on the initial pH and the amount of aluminum.
Lime mixed evenly with the soil at a depth of
At the time of the formation of beds or guludan
add 10-20 tons / ha manure / organic fertilizer
TW Super Plus, with a dose of 4-5 tons / ha
mixed evenly with the ground while inverted
Determination of Planting
Proximity to the type of vine planting hole
is 20 x 50 cm, 40 x 60 cm, 30 x 40 cm. And spacing
of vertical type is 20 x 40 cm and 30 x 60 cm.
Good planting time is early dry season / early
rainy season, but can be throughout the season
from adequate soil water.
How Long Beans Planting
Seed put into the planting hole as much as 2
seed, cover with a thin soil / ash kitchen.
Bean seed needs 21-23 kg /
ha, especially for varieties of KP-01 10.5 kg
/ ha for planting distance of KP-01 seeds are
larger and lighter weight. Before planting is
done first made in a way ditugal planting hole
with 25 cm spacing within rows and between rows
of 1 m. Perlubang filled 2 seed planting, it
is meant in a lanjaran maximum of 4 plants.
After the seed is planted, covered with soil
/ manure which had its soft crumb or it could
Bean seeds will grow 3-5 days later. Seeds do
not grow embroidered immediately.
Lanjaran is wood or bamboo that is useful to
help the plant is above ground level; Lanjaran
help plants to grow and propagate according
to the path that has been made
Installation lanjaran done 10-15 days after
transplanting (DAT), approximately 15-25 cm
plant height. Installation of between 2 lanjaran
planting hole so that the distance between lanjaran
50 cm. Every 5 lanjaran need plus lanjaran /
strengthened, by the way cross mounted.
Installation of rope lanjaran performed after
installation is complete. Ropes useful help
guide / merambatkan plants. Installation of
the rope has two phases. Phase I at an altitude
of ± 70 cm from lanjaran. Phase II at
an altitude of ± 150 cm from lanjaran
Set the direction of
propagation of cucumber plants
Aiming to drive growth in both plant shoots
and branches of plant crops. It is expected
that the lanjaran vines and ropes that had been
installed, so the fruit / pod was not lying
on the ground
Weeding done in the old plants 2-3 weeks after
planting, depending on the growth of grass in
the garden. Weeding by pulling weeds / cleaning
with tools kored. Weeding made prior to fertilization,
or done at any time when weeds interfere with
crop growth was
Trimming / Perempalan
Long beans that are too dense to be held pruning
leaves and stem tip. Plants that are too dense
to inhibit the growth of flowers.
Long bean vine type: Urea TSP 150 kg + 100 kg
+ 100 kg / ha.
Long beans upright type: 22,5 kg Urea + TSP
+ KCl 45 kg 45 kg / ha.
Nuts hybrid: 85 kg 310-420 kg Urea + TSP + 210
kg KCl / ha.
First fertilization (I) do
age ± 12 days with a dose of ZA = 50
kg / ha, SP-36 = 100 kg / ha, KCL = 50 kg /
ha. Fertilization was done by ditugal, the distance
is 5 cm from the planting hole. Then covered
with soil. The second fertilization (ll) do
age ± 28 days with fertilizer NPK = 200
kg / ha with a distance of 10 cm from the planting
hole. Third Fertilization (III) conducted ±
40 days of age also with fertilizer NPK = 200
kg / ha with a distance of 10 cm from the planting
Manure fertilizer is given
in the hole located on either side of the planting
hole. The amount of fertilizer given to a plant
depends on plant spacing.
Supplementary fertilizer plant bean vine type,
given 4 weeks after planting, fertilizer form
of urea 150 kg / ha. Meanwhile, aftershocks
fertilizer for beans upright type is given 4
weeks after planting, in the form of urea fertilizer
85 kg / ha.
In the early phases of seed growth until the
young plants, watering be done routinely every
day. Next Watering depends musim.Pengairan given
as needed, the most important crops are not
maintained for excess or shortage of water.
Watering should be done after fertilization
done. Whereas in the rainy season, irrigation
water is from rain.
Pest and Disease Long
Long Bean Pests
Bean fly (Ophiomya
Symptoms: We have white spots around the bone
of leaves, stunted growth of infected plants
and leaves yellowish, base of the stem occurs
secondary roots and swollen. Control: crop rotation
in a way that is not from family nuts and spraying
with insecticide Orthene 75 SP 1 cc / liter.
Aphids (Aphis cracivora Koch)
Symptoms: delayed growth due to pests suck plant
cell fluids and declining yields. Lice clustered
at the top of the plant and act as a viral vector.
Control: with crop rotation with crops rather
than family nuts and spraying insecticide Carbofuran
Furadan 3G and 80 kg / ha.
Aphids attack sp. similar to thrips attack,
only, the difference if the attack Aphids, leaves
turned black because of growing mushrooms that
grow on dung soot Aphids. Apids can be controlled
by Winder, Supracide etc., with the recommended
Armyworm (Spodoptera litura F.)
Symptoms: leaf perforated with uncertain size,
heavy attack in the dry season, also attack
pods. Control: with peraikan technical culture,
crop rotation, planting in unison, chemical
pest traps and insecticide Suoracide .1 to 0.2%.
Grain borer (Callosobruchus maculatus
Symptoms: seeds were damaged with holes, crushed
to 90%. Control: to clean up and destroy the
remnants of plant pests hiding place. Chickpea
seeds treated with corn oil 10 cc / kg of seed.
Silkworm interest (Maruca testualis)
Symptoms: The larvae attack the flowers are
open, then eat the pod. Control: with crop rotation
and maintain a healthy garden of plant remains.
Sprayed with an effective insecticide such as
Sevin in concentration 0.1% -0.2%.
Caterpillar pests cause loss in interest rates.
pods and larvae cause damage to the pod. This
damage is caused due to decomposition of the
mikoorganisme activity originating from the
silkworm excrement. These pests can be controlled
using a dose Winder accordance with the recommendations.
Thrips attack the shoots of plants so the plants
become frizzy and dry, often attack the buds
or shoots, since the plants are still small
to large. Characteristic of mature plants can
result in loss of interest and the attack occurred
in the dry season. Control of thrips with pesticides
Winder, Promectin, Agrimec, Confidor etc with
the recommended dose.
Plants that are attacked by mites will be visible
from the leaves that curl downward, and blackish
green color. In severe conditions, plants can
suffer from loss of leaves. Control by using
Samite, ommittee, Mitac with the recommended
Peanut Disease Length
Cause: The fungus Colletotricum lindemuthianum.
Symptoms: The attack can be observed on new
seedlings berkecamabah, a kind of cancer is
brown on the stem and seed pieces. Control:
with crop rotation, seed treatment before planting
with the fungicide Dithane M-45 and OB 21 Cupravit
0.1 to 0.2% and removing weeds from around plants.
Cause: Cowpea aphid virus Borne Virus / CaMV.
Symptoms: the young leaves are the color mosaic
image does not irregular. The disease is transmitted
by vector aphids. Control: by using the seeds
of healthy and virus-free, sprayed with an effective
insecticide for aphids and plants deprived attacked
Broom disease Satan
Cause: The Witches-broom virus Cowpea Virus
/ Cowpea Stunt Virus. Symptoms: stunted plant
growth, the joints (the books) is very short
stem, axillary shoots shortened and formed a
"broom". Aphids transmitted diseases.
Control: same with mosaic disease control.
Bacterial wilt and wilt fungus
Cause: Pseudomonas solanacearum EF Smith. Symptoms:
plants suddenly wilt and die plant menyeabkan
heavy attack. Control: with crop rotation, drainage
improvements and remove dead plants.
This disease is caused by the fungus Pytium
bias and by Pseudomonas sp. This disease can
be prevented by kocor with Kocide 77, or by
spray. While the control bacteria with kocor
Bactomycin or Agrimycin with the recommended
Bean harvest distinguished two kinds, namely
young pods and pod harvest parents or the seeds.
Harvest young pods
Performed on the type of bean lanjaran (vine
type) and nut busitao (vertical type). Distinctive
pods ready for harvest is already the maximum
size of peas, easily broken and the seeds in
the pods do not stand out the best harvest time
in the morning / afternoon. Age of plants ready
for harvest from 3.5 to 4 months
Harvest old pod
Performed on an upright kind of bean types,
such as cowpea and peanut uci and busitao. The
characteristics of cowpea pods are ready for
harvest is already quite old-pods, seeds prominent
and yellowish green outer skin. Age 3 to 3.5
months of harvest and harvest time in the morning
Harvest the seeds and the harvest was taken
after the pod is brown and the plant about 60-70
days. Harvest is done by picking the old pods
and seeds have started to harden. Then dried
in the sun on tarps or created by-the place
is hot. Once dry dipipil with thresher tools,
seeds are also the manual way that is dupukul
/ digebug. Dried shelled beans results again
and sorted, to separate the good seed with the
bad seeds (hollow, kepeng, small)
How to Harvest Nuts
How to harvest the bean crop types propagate
by cutting the fruit stalk with a sharp knife.
As for the bean type upright stake with how
to pull / cut stem 10-15 cm tall plant from
the soil surface.
Young pod production per unit area can reach
at least 2.0 tonnes / ha, depending on varieties.
On varieties of KP-I can up to 6.2 tonnes /
ha and KP-2 by 2.1 tons / ha. And production
of long beans upright type ranged from 2.0 to
5.0 tons of dry beans.
Postharvest Long Beans
After harvest, long bean pods are collected
in a shelter, then washed and drained. For old
pods after collected, then dried with dried
peas to the water content of 12-14%.
Separating young pod with the damaged good.
To target export markets, quality criteria for
young pods are at least 20 cm pod size, pod
maturity level of young people belong, the appearance
of seeds not prominent and the color green and
fresh. As for the old pod separated from the
skin dry peas and beans are dried to 12% -14%
In order to maintain the freshness of peas,
temporary storage prior to shipping should be
in the shade. Use crushed ice / refrigerator,
while the old pods stored in cans and placed
in a dry and well ventilated.
Packaging and Transportation
Long bean pods tied with a
maximum weight of 1 kg. Institute packed in
gunny sacks ventilated / polytelyne packed in
plastic bags. Conveyances used to the way bear,
using service vehicles / other transport equipment.
For older pods are packed in sealed cans. Before
placing in the container should first be mixed
with corn oil in order to avoid grain borer.
Handling the long beans in
the form of packaging old pods are as follows:
a) Combine beans with corn oil (10 cc / kg seed).
b) The seed nuts are placed in a clean container
c) bean seeds stored in a dry and clean rooms.
Agribusiness Opportunity Overview
Long bean in Indonesia is the subject of everyday
merchandise. Administrative long beans very
diverse, which served for a variety of cuisines
ranging from raw to cooked forms. Economic and
social prospects are very bright green beans,
long beans, so cultivation is promising.
In recent years a lot of demand
for both domestic and overseas, where demand
is not met. Long beans are also promoted as
a source of protein and minerals. Thus, these
vegetables attract consumers who understand
the meaning of the nutritional value and food
Long bean pods tied with a maximum weight of
1 kg. Institute packed in gunny sacks ventilated
/ polytelyne packed in plastic bags. For older
pods are packed in sealed cans. Before placing
in the container should first be mixed with
corn oil in order to avoid grain borer.
Branding on the outside basket
by giving a label with the inscription as follows:
a) The name of the goods.
b) Type of quality.
c) Name / Code companies or exporters.
d of) Production of Indonesia.
e) Country / place of destination.
Dwi Hartoyo, SP
REFERENCE LONG BEAN