To meet the need / demand for
fresh sweet oranges, Indonesia in addition to
efforts to meet those needs from domestic propduksi
results, but also to some extent still have
to bring in oranges from abroad. Growth
in demand for fresh oranges in addition strongly
influenced by the increase in income per capita
(as a result of the success of development).
Changes in community behavior to get fresh fruit
quality, causing imports of oranges still rising,
in 1990 only amounts to 178.53 tons with a value
of U.S. $ 217.70, but in 1996 imports surged
s / d 14.952.32 tons with a value of U.S. $
8.739.62. Even the highest citrus imports in
1994 amounted to 18.447.22 tons with a value
of U.S. $ 11.411.73.
Trend of rising imports of
fresh citrus fruit has been pushing the government
to restrict imports. Along with it has also
implemented policies that are expected to increase
production / productivity of a variety of fruits
native to Indonesia. Increased domestic production
is expected to trigger a quote, and to create
improvements in the welfare of Indonesian society.
The indicators are that consumer choice of fresh
fruit that is increasingly diverse with more
and better quality, and the price level that
can still be reached by the purchasing power
of most people.
Bali grapefruit (Citrus maxima.
Merr) commonly known by the name of Bali is
one of the citrus fruit that is almost known
by all walks of Bali and most people outside
of Bali. Good marketing prospects and the need
to get attention is how to increase production.
Planting shaddock, both small and large scale
(oriented agribusiness), must start with the
nursery. The successful cultivation of oranges
is determined by the availability of seed quality,
ie a free seedling disease, pure, identical
to the parent, not disabled and penangkarannya
been done properly and accurately through seed
certification program. Good seed is the seed
that comes from grafting and bud grafting. Seeds
are a combination of seedling and branch scion
superior, the production and good fruit quality.
With seeds from bud grafting and grafting will
be obtained by the deeply rooted plants, the
growth of lush, fruit and lots of high quality
fruit, about how grafting citrus crops will
be discussed further in this article.
Citrus fruit is an annual plant originating
from Asia. China is believed to be the first
time oranges grow. Since hundreds of years ago,
oranges are grown in Indonesia, either naturally
or cultivated. Plant
citrus in Indonesia is a relic of the Dutch
who brought sweet oranges and tangerines from
America and Italy.
classification is as follows:
Sub Division: Angiospermae
Species: Citrus sp.
Part of the plant citrus
Local citrus fruits grown in Indonesia is Keprok
orange (Citrus reticulata / nobilis L.), citrus
Siem (C. microcarpa L. and C.sinensis. L) which
consists of Siem Pontianak, Siem Garut Siem
Lumajang, sweet orange (C. . auranticum L and
L. C.sinensis), lemon / lemon (C. MEDICA), grapefruit
(C.maxima Herr.) which consists of orange-Madium
Nambangan and Bali. Orange for cooking yangterdiri
of lime (C. aurantifolia), grapefruit Purut
(C. hystrix) and citrus sauce (C. hystix ABC).
Introduction of citrus varieties are widely
planted varieties of Lemon and Grapefruit. While
local varieties are orange Siem, baby orange,
tangerine field, Bali, and lime juice.
BENEFITS OF PLANTS
1) The benefits of citrus fruit as fresh food
or processed foods, where a high vitamin C content.
2) In Several countries have produced oil from
the skin and seeds of citrus, molasses, alcohol
and pectin from citrus fruit is wasted. Orange
peel oil is used to make perfumes, scented soaps,
essences to mix drinks and cake.
3) Some types of citrus such as lime is used
as traditional medicine for fever, pain the
upper airway inflammation and healing the eyes.
Sentra orange in Indonesia spread include: Garut
(West Java), Tawangmangu (Central Java), Batu
(East Java), Tejakula (Bali), Selayar (South
Sulawesi), Pontianak (West Kalimantan) and Medan
(North Sumatra). Due to a virus attack GO (Citrus
Vein Degeneration Phloen), some cultivation
centers of production decline exacerbated by
the monopoly system of citrus trade system currently
does not apply anymore.
One) wind speeds greater than 40-48% will be
knocked out of flowers and fruit. For areas
that intensity and high wind speeds better windbreak
plants planted rows perpendicular to wind direction.
2) optimum temperature between 25-30 degrees
C, but there are still able to grow normally
at 38 degrees C. Orange Keprok require temperature
20 degrees C.
3) Humidity optimum for plant growth is about
4) All types of citrus do not like places that
are protected from sunlight.
5) Depending on the species, citrus requires
a 5-6, 6-7 or 9 months of wet (rainy season).
Wet months is required for the development of
flowers and fruit to keep the soil moist. In
Indonesia, these plants are in need of adequate
water, especially in July-August
Orange grove should not be covered by stagnant
water. Therefore orange grove to the wetlands
should be made drainase.Untukdaerah tidal made
baluran (beds) with a height of 0.5 meters and
3 meters width and length according to the plot
of land. Each 1 ha of land with the system beds
can be planted 278 orange trees. In the area
of rice fields can be planted with oranges in
a way to make a mound covering an area of 1
m2 with a height of 50-60 cm.
1) Land which is good to sandy clay loam with
clay fractions 7-27%, 25-50% of dust and sand
<50%, enough humus, good water and good air.
2) the optimal soil water is at a depth of 150-200
cm below the soil surface. In the dry season,
150 cm and 50 cm in the rainy season. Citrus
plants like salt water containing about 10%.
3) The type of soil and Andosol Latosol very
suitable for orange cultivation
4) The degree of soil acidity (soil pH) is suitable
for citrus cultivation is 5.5 to 6.5 with a
pH optimum 6
5) citrus plants can grow well in areas that
have a slope of about 300.
Altitude ideal place to raise
oranges in accordance with its kind.
Citrus can be grown in lowlands (wetlands) and
high datarn. Citrus can be grown successfully
at an elevation of 800-1500 meters above sea
level. At an altitude above 900 m asl sour taste.
However, certain types of citrus such as orange
slash Siamese grow well in kalimantan at an
elevation of 100 m above sea level.
High place where oranges could be cultivated
varies from lowlands to high depending on the
1) Type of Stone Keprok 55, Keprok Garut: 700-1200
m above sea level.
2) Type Jepun Kasturi, Kumkuat: 1-1000 m above
3) Type Keprok Madura, Keprok Tejakula: 100-900
m above sea level.
4) Type Sweet Punten, Waturejo, WNO, VLO: 300-800
m above sea level.
5) Type of Siem: 100-700 m above sea level.
6) Large Type Nambangan-Madison, Bali, Roll:
100-700 m above sea level.
7) Type Purut: 100-400 m above sea level.
1) Requirements Seeds
Commonly grown citrus seedlings from vegetative
propagation of shoot tip grafting. Good
seed is the free disease, similar to the parent
(true to type), infertility, stem diameter 2-3
cm, stem surface smooth, the root fibers of
a lot, riding a medium-sized roots and certified
2) Preparation of Seeds
Seeds used for cultivation of orange obtained
by generative and vegetative.
3) Seed seeding technique
a) How to generative
Seeds taken from the fruit by squeezing the
fruit that has been cut. Dikeringanginkan seeds
in places that are not exposed for 2-3 days
until the mucus is lost.
The area has good soil seedbed. Cultivated soil
as deep as 30-4 - cm and made from 1.15 to 1.20
m-sized map seedbed stretched from north to
south. Map distance of 0.5 to 1 m. Before planting,
1 kg/m2. Planted seeds in the groove with a
spacing 1 to 1.5 x 2 cm and watered immediately.
After planting, the nursery was given a roof.
Seeds dipindahtanam into polybags 15 x 35 cm
after 20 cm tall at the age of 3-5 months. Media
to grow in
polybags are manure and chaff mixture (2:1)
or manure, rice husks, sand (1:1:1).
b) How Vegetative
The method commonly done is shoot tip grafting
and pasting the eye patch. For both these ways
need to be prepared rootstock (onderstam / rootstock)
are selected from citrus fruits with strong
roots and broad, high environmental adaptability,
drought resistant, resistant / tolerant to viral
diseases, root rot and nematodes. Rootstock
varieties commonly used by the breeder is a
Japanese citroen, Rough lemon, Cleopatra, Troyer
citrange Citrange and Carizzo.
Grafting is another plant buds attach to the
young stems and from the same variety or between
varieties within species. By grafting good qualities
of both plants (rootstocks and buds of another
stem are united).
1. Terms of rootstock plants
- Have a good growth and strong roots.
- Resistant to water shortage and excess.
- Coming from the lush plants and resistant
to disease so that they can live together (compatible).
- Seedlings derived from seeds nuselus used
as rootstock, usually orange Rough Lemon (RL)
or Japanesche Citroen (JC).
- Types orange it has several advantages namely
the spread of roots in the soil enough lugs
both laterally and vertically.
- Having a high resistance to drought.
a. Branch for the eye patch that is suitable
b. Rootstock already dikelupaskan skin and cut.
c. Eye patch that is so.
2. Seeding and maintenance
of rootstock seed
- Seeding of seeds carried in tanks or nursery
- Media seedbed, a mixture of manure and sand
that has been sifted with a ratio of 1:1.
- Media-hamakan seedbed was consecrated both
chemically and physically and has never been
planted with citrus.
- Nursery was given a plastic shade that can
be opened or closed.
- Once the seeds are planted in the nursery,
watering every day so as not to dry.
- Fertilization with NPK given a dose of 2 g
/ liter of water being sprayed evenly.
- Perform control if there is a pest / disease.
- After the rootstock was 6 months old can be
connected or diokulasi.
3. Terms of plant stems
- Produce high / bear much fruit.
- Shape of a good / excellent and tastes good.
- Resistant to pests and diseases.
- Favored by many people because it has superior
- Twigs / branches that both round and silendris.
4. Equipment and materials
that need to be prepared
- Grafting knife sharp and clean.
- Plastic rope or raffia to tie the eye attached
to the rootstock.
- Woven cloth to clean the base of the stem.
- Scissors Cut to remove the wild shoots.
5. How it works
- The base under the trees to be affixed to
first be cleaned with a rag.
- Approximately 20 cm above ground, below the
base of the tree bark is cut or sliced crosswise
like inverted U-shape.
- The left and right pieces / slices of skin
scraped down to the tip of a knife along the
- The skin that has been cut and was then appointed
and ditoreh dikelupaskan down along 3 cm.
- Approximately 2 / 3 part of the skin that
has been dikelupaskan was cut and the remaining
third is used to clamp the skin more eyes that
will be attached.
- After the branch / branches to stem the availability,
tunasnya eye is immediately cut from the branch.
Leather-edged limb bud (eritris) thinly sliced
3 cm long and the wood, then cut.
- Leather-edged wedge taken out and removed
with the tip of a knife.
This work should be done with extreme caution,
lest the skin is damaged, torn or dirty.
- Skin patches immediately placed in the gap
rootstock that were prepared to actually fit
and attached with the skin is left. How not
to put it upside down.
- After skin above candidate stem attached,
the patch must be tied. How to tie it from bottom
to top, about 1 cm above the sticker. Buds do
not be closed by a leash but must be sticking.
- After 3 weeks since the bond of attachment
is opened and the patch cords examined. If circumstances
remain fresh green, mean patch successfully,
but if the color is brown or yellow, it means
sticking to fail.
- If the patch works, under the curved or broken
rods at a height of 2-3 cm above the patch.
This is intended to patch buds can grow without
rivaled by other shoots.
- If the patch is not so still may be patches
again at another place, for example on the side
- After the patch successfully into new crops
and the situation is already quite mature (enough
number of branches and twigs and leaves much
to assimilate) are curved or broken rods were
cut oblique and discarded.
- Former piece must be smeared or covered with
paraffin or paint.
- Some time later the plant can be transplanted
into black plastic bags (polybags) and filled
with soil mixed with enough fertilizer, watered
every land keying.
- Seeds are large enough in plastic bags ready
PLANTING MEDIA PROCESSING
Citrus grown in the fields of wetland / on land
slope. If planted in a hill needs to be made
sengkedan / terrace. Land that will ditamani
cleaned from other plants or plant residues.
Spacing varies for each type of citrus can be
viewed at the following data:
1) Keprok and Siem: spacing of 5 x 5 m
2) Sweet: spacing of 7 x 7 m
3) citron (Citroen): spacing of 6 x 7 m
4) Lime: spacing of 4 x 4 m
5) Grape fruit: spacing of 8 x 8 m
6) Large: spacing (10-12) x (10-12) m
Planting hole only made on land that has not
been processed and made 2 weeks prior to the
ground. Land part of land separated from the
topsoil (25 cm). Soil from the top layer is
mixed with 20 kg of manure. After planting the
land restored to its original place. Seedbed
(guludan) measuring 1 x 1 x 1 m is only made
if the oranges grown in paddy field soil.
Plant spacing varies from one other location.
grove in the lowlands (wetlands) distance using
the earnings are relatively more rare than the
orange orchard in the highlands, because 40%
of wetlands used for the manufacture of necessity
drainage and road construction. In Java used
a spacing of 7 x 7 m or 8 x 8 meters. But the
recommended spacing for tangerines is 6 x 6
meters. Spacing larger generally does not give
effect to the plant except the low plant population
per hectare. If a citrus plantation business
is designed for a 10 year period then simply
use the short spacing of eg 5 x 5 meters. If
age over 10 years of production is still good
and if the garden is still maintained thinning
should be done by cutting down trees that are
less productive. With a spacing of 5 x 5 meters
then in 1 hectare will have 400 trees. Before
planting, the planting hole that has been created
is filled with manure / compost mixed with topsoil.
In this CCP Court assumed spacing lowland orange
5.2 x 5.2 meters, or 364 trees per hectare.
While in the highlands of 5 x 4 m or 500 trees
per hectare. Plant new citrus produce after
the age of 3-4 years and peak
production at the age of 8-9 years.
Citrus seedlings can be planted
in the rainy season or dry season if the available
water to water, but should be planted at the
beginning of the rainy season. Before being
planted, needs to be done:
1) Reduction of excessive leaf and branch.
2) Reduction of root.
3) Setting the root position not to have folded.
After the seedlings out in the garden, watering
taste and given a mulch of straw, coconut leaves
or leaves that is free of disease in the vicinity.
Place mulch such a way that does not touch the
stem to avoid stem rot.
Before crop production and canopy shade each
other, can be planted between the plants or
plant kacang-kacangan/sayuran both sidelines
in the form of rice. If the plant broke in the
form of rice will be made so that the position
guludan citrus crop is above the rice crop.
It means so that the roots of citrus was not
flooded air.Setelah canopy cover each other,
interrupted plants replaced by grass / legume
ground cover that also functions as an enhancer
of nitrogen for citrus crops.
The series of maintenance activities ranging
from weeding, fertilizing, pruning, creation
of a pillar, fruit thinning and pest and disease
eradication. This maintenance activity is the
main activity in citrus plantations.
Performed on plants that do not grow.
Weeding is intended for the orange tree grow
without interruption, which means good disturbance
weed / peredu, parasites and other wild plants.
Cleaning or weeding should be done at least
twice a year, including one-time along with
fertilization, others before harvesting.
Weeds cleaned in accordance with the frequency
of growth, at the time of fertilization also
done a good weeding penyiangan.Dengan expected
given fertilizer effectively utilized for citrus
3) Landfill soil
If planted in the soil cycle, to consider whether
there is soil around the roots eroded. Addition
of soil needs to be done if the base of the
roots have started to appear.
To be able to produce a good tree fertilizer
besides carried out by well to do a good pruning.
Trimming up to three years old plants intended
for the establishment of branches and twigs
are good, by selecting branches and twigs that
exist and choose a healthy and strong. After
more than three years old, the activities of
pruning is done at the beginning of each rainy
Pruning aims to form a canopy of trees and remove
diseased branches, dry and unproductive / undesirable.
From the early buds which grow up leave 3-4
buds at uniform distances which will form the
canopy of trees. On further growth, each branch
has a branch or multiplication 3-4
While trimming the top to get a better fruit,
pruning puncuk conducted at the end of the rainy
season, hoping the tree will bloom in the dry
season. Trees are flowering in the dry season
will produce more fruit because of the movement
of pollen is not impaired. And vice versa when
the shoots are trimmed in the dry season the
tree will bloom in the next rainy season. Because
flowering in the rainy season generally rates
will fall, which will menngakibatkan low fruit
Clipping scar covered with
fungicide or wax to prevent the disease. We
recommend that you first dip the pruning shears
into Klorox / alcohol. Diseased twigs were burned
or buried in the soil.
Giving the type and dose of fertilizer (g /
plant) after planting are as follows:
a) 1 month: Urea = 100; ZA = 200; TSP = 25;
ZK = 100; Dolomite = 20; P.kandang = 20 kg /
b) 2 months: Urea = 200; ZA = 400; TSP = 50;
ZK = 200; Dolomite = 40; P.kandang = 40 kg /
c) 3 months: Urea = 300; ZA = 600; TSP = 75;
ZK = 300; Dolomite = 60; P.kandang = 60 kg /
d) 4 months: Urea = 400; ZA = 800; TSP = 100;
ZK = 400; Dolomite = 80; P.kandang = 80 kg /
e) 5 months: Urea = 500; ZA = 1000; TSP = 125;
ZK = 500; Dolomite = 100; P.kandang = 100 kg
f) 6 months: Urea = 600; ZA = 1200; TSP = 150;
ZK = 600; Dolomite = 120; P.kandang = 120 kg
g) 7 month: Urea = 700; ZA = 1400; TSP = 175;
ZK = 700; Dolomite = 140; P.kandang = 140 kg
h) 8 months: Urea = 800; ZA = 1600; TSP = 200;
ZK = 800; Dolomite = 160; P.kandang = 160 kg
i)> 8 months: Urea> 1000; ZA = 2000; TSP
= 200; ZK = 800; Dolomite = 200; P.kandang =
200 kg / tan.
FERTILIZER PLANT ORANGE
GENERAL RECOMMENDATIONS FOR INDONESIAN REGION
This recommendation is not an absolute but adapted
to soil conditions, because we realize that
the state of soil in each every region is different.
Fertilizer is also depending on the species
/ varieties of citrus crop itself, but this
only as a reference only. may be useful:
of time of fertilizer
(Kg / tree)
0 - 1
|Every 3 months
1 - 2
|Every 3 months
2 - 3
|Every 4 months
3 - 4
|Every 6 months
4 - 5
|Every 6 months
|Based on Total Production
||Every 6 months
Fertilization for the cultivation
of oranges per tree Siamese plants according
(Cans / year)
3 - 4
|200 - 300
||100 - 250
||100 - 200
|300 - 400
||150 - 200
||150 - 200
|400 - 500
||200 - 250
||200 - 250
|500 - 600
||200 - 300
||200 - 300
|600 - 800
||300 - 400
||300 - 400
||400 - 500
||400 - 500
|1000 - 1200
||500 - 600
||500 - 600
|1200 - 1400
||600 - 700
||600 - 700
9 - etc
|1400 - 1600
||600 - 800
||600 - 800
Data: Sower Self Reliance.
Manure application made at
the beginning of the rainy season, at the threshold
limit of tree rings with the tip of the leaf
(near the hair root), preferably with a circle
dug as deep as approximately 30 cm by 20 cm
wide. Fertilizer after being mixed inserted
into a hole dug a hole and then closed again
with soil. Fertilization is done first by combining
all manure with urea fertilizer 1 / 3 part and
the TSP and 1 / 3 KCl, 1 / 3 parts of urea are
given immediately after flowering orange tree
and 1 / 3 and TSP and 2 / 3 KCl given when the
fruit begins to enlarge.
6) Irrigation and
Watering should not inundate the stem roots.
Plants irrigated at least once a week during
the dry season. If the water is less available,
the soil around the plant closed digemburkan
7) Fruit Thinning
In a year where heavy fruiting orange trees,
thinning should be done so that the tree is
able to support growth and fruit weight and
fruit quality maintained. fruit that is too
dense will affect the final output, in addition
to fruit that is too heavy will also affect
the condition of the fruit the following season.
Even the old orange trees under 4 years, if
the fruit is too heavy will greatly affect the
health and productivity of citrus trees in the
future. Therefore there needs to be thinning
the fruit. In the early production period (3
years) of fruit should only be left on the branches
of the right-benarkuat and there are not too
banyak.Buah disposed covering the fruit of the
sick, who are not exposed to sunlight (in the
shade of the leaves) and excess fruit in in
a single stalk. Eliminate fruit at the end of
the fruit in a single main stem there and leave
only 2-3 fruit.
Good fruit is a fruit that
grows normally, whose position is easy fruit
exposed to sunlight, therefore the fruit contained
in the protected branches need dijarangkan /
removed, so as not to waste energy / nutrients
that are absorbed by citrus trees.
For citrus trees do not accept the burden was
too heavy and broken at the time of fruition,
then it should be a pillar of orange trees made
of wood or this buffer bambu.Pemberian see if
the branch or twig conditions ira do not think
it strong enough to support the weight of the
fruit then this treatment is needed. Buffer
should be made in accordance with the four square
circle branch that shall be supported. This
means that the bigger the tree the greater the
required buffer. Making this buffer would require
a fee, but because the manufacturing can be
done in stages can be met from materials found
around the farm, would cost that counts is the
cost of labor alone. However, if the materials
to be used for the buffer must be purchased
course there are additional buffer materials
ORANGE CROP PEST AND
1) Lice jump (D. citri.)
The part that is attacked is the stalk, leaf
buds, shoots, young leaves.
Symptoms: kinky shoots, the plants die.
Control: use the insecticide active ingredient
dimethoate (40 EC Roxion, Rogor 40 EC), endosulfan
(Thiodan 3G, 35 Dekasulfan EC and 350 EC) and
Monocrotophos (Azodrin 60 WSC). Spraying conducted
prior to and during budding, Also remove the
2) Flea leaves (Toxoptera
citridus aurantii, Aphis gossypii.)
The part that was attacked was the young shoots
Symptoms: leaf roll and lasting until the leaves
Control: use of insecticides with the active
ingredient Malathion (Gisonthion 50 EC), Methidathion
(Supracide 40 EC), Diazinon (Basudin 60 EC),
phosphamidon (Dimecron 50 SCW), Dimethoate (Perfecthion,
Rogor 40 EC, Cygon).
3) Silkworm peliang
leaves (Phyllocnistis citrella.)
The part that is attacked is the young leaves.
Symptoms: transparent or silvery circular groove,
buds / young leaves wrinkle, roll up, fell out.
Control: spray insecticides with active ingredients
Methidathion (Supracide 40 EC, 60 EC Basudin),
Malathion (Gisonthion 50 EC, 50 WP) <Diazinon
(Basazinon 45/30 EC). Then the leaves are picked
and buried in the soil.
4) Mites (Tenuipalsus
sp., Eriophyes sheldoni Tetranychus sp)
The part that is attacked is the stalk, leaves
and fruit. Symptoms: keperakperakan or brown
spots on fruit and yellow or brown spots on
leaves. Control: spray insecticide propargite
(ommittee), Cyhexation (Plictran), Dicofol (Kelthane),
Oxythioquimox (Morestan 25 WP, 50 WP Dicarbam).
5) fruit Borer (Citripestis
The part that was attacked is the fruit. Symptoms:
holes that emit latex. Control: Infected fruit
picking and using insecticides. Methomyl (Lannate
25 WP, 24 Nudrin WSC), Methidathion (Supracide
are sprayed on fruits aged 2-5 weeks.
6) leaf-sucking lice
The part that was attacked Helopeltis antonii.
Symptoms: blackish brown spots with lighter
colored centers on young shoots and fruits,
fruit spotting fluid disertaikeluarnya become
necrotic. Control: spray insecticide Fenitrotionmothion
(Sumicidine 50 EC), Fenithion (Lebaycid), methamidophos
(Tamaron), Methomil (Lannate 25 WP).
7) Silkworm ulcer rate
and fruit borer (Prays sp.)
The part that was attacked was the flower buds
of sweet orange or grapefruit bes. Symptoms:
former holes 0.3 to 0.5 centimeters in diameter,
easily fall flowers, young fruit fall before
dark. Control: use of insecticides with active
ingredients Methomyl (Lannate 25 WP) and Methidathion
(Supracide 40 EC). Then dispose of the attack.
8) Thrips (Scirtotfrips
The part that was attacked was the young stems
and leaves. Symptoms: leaves thicken, the edge
of the leaf curl upward at the tip of leaf buds
become black, dry and fall, brown scar grayish
sometimes accompanied nekrotis. Control: keep
the plant canopy is not too tightly and measuk
sunlight into the canopy, avoid using straw
mulch. Then use insecticides contain active
Difocol (Kelthane) or Z-propargite (ommittee)
9) Ticks dompolon (Planococcus
The part that is attacked is the fruit stalk.
Symptoms: yellow beam, dry and fallen fruit.
Control: use insektisda Methomyl (Lannate 25
WP), Triazophos (Fostathion 40 EC), Carbaryl
(Sevin 85 S), Methidathion (Supracide 40 EC).
Then prevent the arrival of ants can move lice.
10) The fruit flies
The part that was attacked is near-ripe fruit.
Symptoms: small hole in the middle, fall fruits,
small maggots on the inside of the fruit. Control:
use insecticide Fenthion (Lebaycid 550 EC),
Dimethoathe (Roxion 40 EC, 40 EC Rogor) mixed
with Methyl-Eugenol Pheromones Hydrolisate or
11) Flea scales (Lepidosaphes
Beckii Unaspis citri.)
The part that is attacked leaves, fruits and
stems. Symptoms: yellow leaves, spotting khlorotis
and autumn leaves. In the visible symptoms of
severe attacks twigs and branches dry and cracked
skin of the fruit fall. Control: use the pesticide
Diazinon (Basudin 60 EC, 10 G, Basazinon 45/30
EC), phosphamidon (Dimecron 50 SCW), Dichlorophos
(Nogos 50 EC), Methidhation (Supracide 40 EC).
12) snout beetle (Maeuterpes
The part that was attacked was the old leaves
on the twigs or branches of the bottom. Symptoms:
autumn leaves, young twigs sometimes die. Control:
improve sanitation garden, reduce humidity roots.
Then use the insecticide Carbaryl (Sevin 85
S) and Diazinon (Basudin 60 EC, 10 G).
Cause: A bacterium like organism with leafhopper
vector D. citri. Part of being attacked: the
central cylinder (phloem) stem. Symptoms: leaf
narrow, small, pointed, small fruit, acid, base
of damaged seeds and orange fruit.
Control: use the plants healthy and free CVPD.
In addition, the placement location of the garden
of at least 5 km from the orange grove that
was attacked CVPD. Use of insecticides
for vector and consider a good garden sanitation.
Cause: Citrus tristeza virus by vector Toxoptera.
Section who attacked sweet orange, lime, big
and orange rootstock Japanese citroen. Symptoms:
hollow stem, stiff leaf discoloration, leaf
veins, stunted growth
Control: note the garden sanitation, destroy
infected plants and vector control with insecticides
Supracide or Cascade.
3) Woody gall (Vein
Cause: virus Citrus vein with vectors Toxoptera
Enation citridus, Aphis gossypii. Part of being
attacked: Orange juice, sweet, Siem, Rough lemon
and Sour Orange.
Symptoms: irregular bulge bones scattered on
the leaf at the leaf surface.
Control: use of virus-free eye patch and note
the environmental sanitation.
Cause: fungus Diplodia natalensis. The part
that was attacked is a trunk or branch.
Symptoms: armpit skin gom Branch generate interest
beetles, wood color so greyish, dry skin and
Control: infected branch cuts, the cut given
karbolineum or copper fungicide. and the fungicide
benomyl 2 times a year.
5) Dew flour
Cause: The fungus Odidium tingitanium. The part
that was attacked is the leaves and young stems.
Symptoms: white powder on leaves and young stems.
Control: use fungicide Pyrazophos (Afugan) and
Bupirimate (Nimrot 25 EC).
Cause: The fungus Sphaceloma fawcetti. The part
that is attacked is the leaves, stems or fruit.
Symptoms: tiny speck that turned into a cork
clear yellow or orange.
Control: regular trimming. Then use Fungicide
Dithiocarbamate / benomyl (Benlate).
7) Rotten fruit
Cause: Penicillium spp. Phytophtora citriphora,
Botryodiplodia theobromae. The part that was
attacked is the fruit.
Symptoms: wheat-flour are solid bluish green
on the skin surface.
Control: avoid mechanical damage, dip the fruit
into the hot water / fungicide benpmyl, pelilinan
fruit and trimming the bottom of the tree.
8) root and stem rots
Cause: The fungus Phyrophthoranicotianae. The
part that was attacked is the root and base
of the stem and leaves at the end of the branches
Symptoms: no fresh shoots, dried plants. Control:
treatment and good irrigation, soil sterilization
at the time of planting, create a patch to a
minimum height of 20 cm from soil surface.
9) The fruit fall prematurely
Cause: The fungus Fusarium sp. Colletotrichum
sp. Alternaria sp. Parts attacked: fruit and
Symptoms: two-four weeks prior to harvest fruit
Control: Fungicides benomyl (Benlate) or Caprafol.
10) Mushroom upas
Cause: Upasia salmonicolor. The part that was
attacked was the stem.
Symptoms: transverse cracks on the trunk and
out gom, dry and tough stems exfoliated. Control:
infected skin exfoliated and disaput carbolineum
fungicide. Then cut an infected branch.
Cause: The bacterium Xanthomonas campestris
Cv. Citri. The part that was attacked is a leaf,
Symptom: small patches of dark green or yellow
along the edges, wound enlarged and looks like
with a diameter of 3-5 mm.
Control: Fungicides such as porridge Bordeaux
Cu, Copper oxychlorida. In addition, to prevent
worm attacks peliang by dipping the leaves are
attached to the eye in 1,000 ppm streptomycin
for 1 hour.
In general, some way
of pest control (OPT), which can be integrated
1. How to cultivation, which include resistance
varieties, destruction of infected plants and
a source of disease, crop edge that serves as
a trap for pests and also become home to a natural
enemy, sanitation, irrigation and good drainage
and fertilizing accordingly.
2. Biological means, by utilizing the many natural
enemies can be found in nature.
3. Mechanical way, by capturing, destroying
4. How the rules, by quarantine and regulations
on plant traffic.
5. Chemical way, this way the last choice in
pest control due to bad risk to human safety
and environmental sustainability.
Characteristics and Harvest Time
Citrus fruit is harvested at optimal cooking
time, usually between the ages of 28-36 weeks,
depending on the species / varieties. For Tangerine
can be harvested at the age of 6-8 months after
the flowers bloom.
At harvest, physical characteristics:
1. Skin yellowish fruit (orange);
2. The fruit is not too hard if it is held;
3. The bottom of the fruit a bit tender and
when dijentik with no loud sounds finger again.
How to Harvest
Fruit are picked by using pruning shears.
On average, each tree can produce 300-400 fruits
per year, sometimes up to 500 fruits per year.
Citrus production in Indonesia of about 5.1
tons / ha is still under production in subtropical
countries that can reach 40 tons / ha.
In the garden, the fruit gathered in the shade
and clean. Separate low-quality fruit, bruised
and dispose of damaged fruit. Sorting is based
on the diameter and weight of the fruit which
usually consists of 4 classes. Grade A is the
fruit with the largest diameter and weight while
the class D has the smallest diameter and weight.
Sorting and classification
After the fruits are picked and collected, then
the fruit sorted / separated from rotten fruit.
Then the citrus fruit is classified according
to the size and types.
To save the citrus fruit, use a clean and healthy
place with room temperature 80-10 degrees C.
Before shipping, the fruit is packed in bamboo
baskets / thick wood is not too heavy to local
needs and boxes for export. Packing should not
be too dense for the fruit is not damaged. Fruit
was structured so that in between the citrus
fruit is free air space but the fruit can not
be moved. Containers for packing oranges capacity
of 50-60 kg.
Overseas citrus fruits is a commodity that is
very important with high economic value. The
tendency of international demand for fruits
including oranges will increase, other than
that estimated domestic market demand will increase
by 10% per year.
Citrus consumption in Indonesia is only 2.7
kg / person / year, still far from ideal consumption
of 6.4 kg / person / year. With ideal consumption,
required 1.3 million tons of oranges per year,
whereas citrus production in 1996 only 793,810
tons / year yangsaat is not moving much. For
that still required the addition of 50 129 ha
of citrus orchard.
Prospect citrus agribusiness
in Indonesia, the better because of agricultural
land for fruit covering an area of millions
of hectares and the potential increase in orange
production is also high because during the orange
groves are generally cultivated traditionally.
Additionally, citrus fruits is a commodity whose
price is relatively stable.
Standard production includes: quality requirements,
how to test the quality, the way sampling and
how the packaging.
Tangerine is a citrus fruit from tangerine (Citrus
reticulata Lour) are easy to peel skin, the
situation is quite old, whole fresh and clean.
Tangerine classified into 4 (four), size of
class A, B, C and D, based on the weight of
each fruit, each of which were classified into
2 (two) types of quality, namely Quality I and
Class D: diameter of 7.1 cm or 151 grams / fruit.
Class B: diameter from 6.1 to 7.0 cm or 101-150
g / fruit
Class C: 5.1 to 6.0 cm in diameter or 51-100
g / fruit
Class D: diameter of 4.0 to 5.0 cm or 50 grams
The tangerine fruit quality
requirements are as follows:
1) Keasamaan nature of varieties: Uniforms,
organoleptic test method
2) Level aging: Old, not overcooked, way sensory
3) Hardness: Quite hard, organoleptic test method
4) Size: Less uniform, how to test SP-SMP-309-1981
5) Damage,% (Qty / Qty): 50-10 max, how to test
6) Dirt: free, free, organoleptic test method
7) Rot% (Qty / Qty): maks.1-2, how to test SP-SMP-311-1981
Citrus fruit is packed with wooden crates /
other materials consistent with maximum net
weight 30 kg. Outer packaging label that reads
as follows: name of goods, class size, the type
of quality, name / code of the company, net
weight, country / place of destination, the
results of Indonesia, the region of origin.
Dwi Hartoyo, SP
http://www.ristek.go.id (Menegristek Deputy
Office for Administrative Affairs and Correctional
Science and Technology Building II BPPT 6th
Floor, Jl. MH Thamrin 8 Jakarta 10 340)
Installation Research and Assessment of Agricultural
Technology Denpasar Jl. By Pass Ngurah Rai PO
Box 3480, Denpasar Bali