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CULTIVATION
ORANGE
(Citrus sp.)

 

To meet the need / demand for fresh sweet oranges, Indonesia in addition to efforts to meet those needs from domestic propduksi results, but also to some extent still have to bring in oranges from abroad. Growth in demand for fresh oranges in addition strongly influenced by the increase in income per capita (as a result of the success of development). Changes in community behavior to get fresh fruit quality, causing imports of oranges still rising, in 1990 only amounts to 178.53 tons with a value of U.S. $ 217.70, but in 1996 imports surged s / d 14.952.32 tons with a value of U.S. $ 8.739.62. Even the highest citrus imports in 1994 amounted to 18.447.22 tons with a value of U.S. $ 11.411.73.

Trend of rising imports of fresh citrus fruit has been pushing the government to restrict imports. Along with it has also implemented policies that are expected to increase production / productivity of a variety of fruits native to Indonesia. Increased domestic production is expected to trigger a quote, and to create improvements in the welfare of Indonesian society. The indicators are that consumer choice of fresh fruit that is increasingly diverse with more and better quality, and the price level that can still be reached by the purchasing power of most people.

Bali grapefruit (Citrus maxima. Merr) commonly known by the name of Bali is one of the citrus fruit that is almost known by all walks of Bali and most people outside of Bali. Good marketing prospects and the need to get attention is how to increase production. Planting shaddock, both small and large scale (oriented agribusiness), must start with the nursery. The successful cultivation of oranges is determined by the availability of seed quality, ie a free seedling disease, pure, identical to the parent, not disabled and penangkarannya been done properly and accurately through seed certification program. Good seed is the seed that comes from grafting and bud grafting. Seeds are a combination of seedling and branch scion of varieties
superior, the production and good fruit quality. With seeds from bud grafting and grafting will be obtained by the deeply rooted plants, the growth of lush, fruit and lots of high quality fruit, about how grafting citrus crops will be discussed further in this article.


BRIEF HISTORY

Citrus fruit is an annual plant originating from Asia. China is believed to be the first time oranges grow. Since hundreds of years ago, oranges are grown in Indonesia, either naturally or cultivated. Plant
citrus in Indonesia is a relic of the Dutch who brought sweet oranges and tangerines from America and Italy.

PLANT TYPE

Citrus botanical classification is as follows:
Division: Spermatophyta
Sub Division: Angiospermae
Class: Dicotyledonae
Order: Rutales
Family: Rutaceae
Genus: Citrus
Species: Citrus sp.


Part of the plant citrus


Local citrus fruits grown in Indonesia is Keprok orange (Citrus reticulata / nobilis L.), citrus Siem (C. microcarpa L. and C.sinensis. L) which consists of Siem Pontianak, Siem Garut Siem Lumajang, sweet orange (C. . auranticum L and L. C.sinensis), lemon / lemon (C. MEDICA), grapefruit (C.maxima Herr.) which consists of orange-Madium Nambangan and Bali. Orange for cooking yangterdiri of lime (C. aurantifolia), grapefruit Purut (C. hystrix) and citrus sauce (C. hystix ABC). Introduction of citrus varieties are widely planted varieties of Lemon and Grapefruit. While local varieties are orange Siem, baby orange, tangerine field, Bali, and lime juice.


BENEFITS OF PLANTS
1) The benefits of citrus fruit as fresh food or processed foods, where a high vitamin C content.
2) In Several countries have produced oil from the skin and seeds of citrus, molasses, alcohol and pectin from citrus fruit is wasted. Orange peel oil is used to make perfumes, scented soaps, essences to mix drinks and cake.
3) Some types of citrus such as lime is used as traditional medicine for fever, pain the upper airway inflammation and healing the eyes.

INVESTMENT CENTER
Sentra orange in Indonesia spread include: Garut (West Java), Tawangmangu (Central Java), Batu (East Java), Tejakula (Bali), Selayar (South Sulawesi), Pontianak (West Kalimantan) and Medan (North Sumatra). Due to a virus attack GO (Citrus Vein Degeneration Phloen), some cultivation centers of production decline exacerbated by the monopoly system of citrus trade system currently does not apply anymore.

GROWING CONDITIONS
Climate

One) wind speeds greater than 40-48% will be knocked out of flowers and fruit. For areas that intensity and high wind speeds better windbreak plants planted rows perpendicular to wind direction.
2) optimum temperature between 25-30 degrees C, but there are still able to grow normally at 38 degrees C. Orange Keprok require temperature 20 degrees C.
3) Humidity optimum for plant growth is about 70-80% .5.
4) All types of citrus do not like places that are protected from sunlight.
5) Depending on the species, citrus requires a 5-6, 6-7 or 9 months of wet (rainy season). Wet months is required for the development of flowers and fruit to keep the soil moist. In Indonesia, these plants are in need of adequate water, especially in July-August


PLANTING MEDIA
Orange grove should not be covered by stagnant water. Therefore orange grove to the wetlands should be made drainase.Untukdaerah tidal made baluran (beds) with a height of 0.5 meters and 3 meters width and length according to the plot of land. Each 1 ha of land with the system beds can be planted 278 orange trees. In the area of rice fields can be planted with oranges in a way to make a mound covering an area of 1 m2 with a height of 50-60 cm.
1) Land which is good to sandy clay loam with clay fractions 7-27%, 25-50% of dust and sand <50%, enough humus, good water and good air.
2) the optimal soil water is at a depth of 150-200 cm below the soil surface. In the dry season, 150 cm and 50 cm in the rainy season. Citrus plants like salt water containing about 10%.
3) The type of soil and Andosol Latosol very suitable for orange cultivation
4) The degree of soil acidity (soil pH) is suitable for citrus cultivation is 5.5 to 6.5 with a pH optimum 6
5) citrus plants can grow well in areas that have a slope of about 300.

Altitude ideal place to raise oranges in accordance with its kind.
Citrus can be grown in lowlands (wetlands) and high datarn. Citrus can be grown successfully at an elevation of 800-1500 meters above sea level. At an altitude above 900 m asl sour taste. However, certain types of citrus such as orange slash Siamese grow well in kalimantan at an elevation of 100 m above sea level.
High place where oranges could be cultivated varies from lowlands to high depending on the species:
1) Type of Stone Keprok 55, Keprok Garut: 700-1200 m above sea level.
2) Type Jepun Kasturi, Kumkuat: 1-1000 m above sea level.
3) Type Keprok Madura, Keprok Tejakula: 100-900 m above sea level.
4) Type Sweet Punten, Waturejo, WNO, VLO: 300-800 m above sea level.
5) Type of Siem: 100-700 m above sea level.
6) Large Type Nambangan-Madison, Bali, Roll: 100-700 m above sea level.
7) Type Purut: 100-400 m above sea level.

RAISING GUIDELINES
Nurseries

1) Requirements Seeds
Commonly grown citrus seedlings from vegetative propagation of shoot tip grafting. Good seed is the free disease, similar to the parent (true to type), infertility, stem diameter 2-3 cm, stem surface smooth, the root fibers of a lot, riding a medium-sized roots and certified seed captivity.

2) Preparation of Seeds
Seeds used for cultivation of orange obtained by generative and vegetative.

3) Seed seeding technique
a) How to generative
Seeds taken from the fruit by squeezing the fruit that has been cut. Dikeringanginkan seeds in places that are not exposed for 2-3 days until the mucus is lost.
The area has good soil seedbed. Cultivated soil as deep as 30-4 - cm and made from 1.15 to 1.20 m-sized map seedbed stretched from north to south. Map distance of 0.5 to 1 m. Before planting, add manure
1 kg/m2. Planted seeds in the groove with a spacing 1 to 1.5 x 2 cm and watered immediately. After planting, the nursery was given a roof. Seeds dipindahtanam into polybags 15 x 35 cm after 20 cm tall at the age of 3-5 months. Media to grow in
polybags are manure and chaff mixture (2:1) or manure, rice husks, sand (1:1:1).

b) How Vegetative
The method commonly done is shoot tip grafting and pasting the eye patch. For both these ways need to be prepared rootstock (onderstam / rootstock) are selected from citrus fruits with strong roots and broad, high environmental adaptability, drought resistant, resistant / tolerant to viral diseases, root rot and nematodes. Rootstock varieties commonly used by the breeder is a Japanese citroen, Rough lemon, Cleopatra, Troyer citrange Citrange and Carizzo.

Grafting
Grafting is another plant buds attach to the young stems and from the same variety or between varieties within species. By grafting good qualities of both plants (rootstocks and buds of another stem are united).
1. Terms of rootstock plants
- Have a good growth and strong roots.
- Resistant to water shortage and excess.
- Coming from the lush plants and resistant to disease so that they can live together (compatible).
- Seedlings derived from seeds nuselus used as rootstock, usually orange Rough Lemon (RL) or Japanesche Citroen (JC).
- Types orange it has several advantages namely the spread of roots in the soil enough lugs both laterally and vertically.
- Having a high resistance to drought.
a. Branch for the eye patch that is suitable for grafting.
b. Rootstock already dikelupaskan skin and cut.
c. Eye patch that is so.

2. Seeding and maintenance of rootstock seed
- Seeding of seeds carried in tanks or nursery beds.
- Media seedbed, a mixture of manure and sand that has been sifted with a ratio of 1:1.
- Media-hamakan seedbed was consecrated both chemically and physically and has never been planted with citrus.
- Nursery was given a plastic shade that can be opened or closed.
- Once the seeds are planted in the nursery, watering every day so as not to dry.
- Fertilization with NPK given a dose of 2 g / liter of water being sprayed evenly.
- Perform control if there is a pest / disease.
- After the rootstock was 6 months old can be connected or diokulasi.

3. Terms of plant stems
- Produce high / bear much fruit.
- Shape of a good / excellent and tastes good.
- Resistant to pests and diseases.
- Favored by many people because it has superior characteristics.
- Twigs / branches that both round and silendris.

4. Equipment and materials that need to be prepared
- Grafting knife sharp and clean.
- Plastic rope or raffia to tie the eye attached to the rootstock.
- Woven cloth to clean the base of the stem.
- Scissors Cut to remove the wild shoots.

5. How it works
- The base under the trees to be affixed to first be cleaned with a rag.
- Approximately 20 cm above ground, below the base of the tree bark is cut or sliced crosswise like inverted U-shape.
- The left and right pieces / slices of skin scraped down to the tip of a knife along the 3 cm.
- The skin that has been cut and was then appointed and ditoreh dikelupaskan down along 3 cm.
- Approximately 2 / 3 part of the skin that has been dikelupaskan was cut and the remaining third is used to clamp the skin more eyes that will be attached.
- After the branch / branches to stem the availability, tunasnya eye is immediately cut from the branch. Leather-edged limb bud (eritris) thinly sliced 3 cm long and the wood, then cut.
- Leather-edged wedge taken out and removed with the tip of a knife.
This work should be done with extreme caution, lest the skin is damaged, torn or dirty.
- Skin patches immediately placed in the gap rootstock that were prepared to actually fit and attached with the skin is left. How not to put it upside down.
- After skin above candidate stem attached, the patch must be tied. How to tie it from bottom to top, about 1 cm above the sticker. Buds do not be closed by a leash but must be sticking.
- After 3 weeks since the bond of attachment is opened and the patch cords examined. If circumstances remain fresh green, mean patch successfully, but if the color is brown or yellow, it means sticking to fail.
- If the patch works, under the curved or broken rods at a height of 2-3 cm above the patch.
This is intended to patch buds can grow without rivaled by other shoots.
- If the patch is not so still may be patches again at another place, for example on the side or rear.
- After the patch successfully into new crops and the situation is already quite mature (enough number of branches and twigs and leaves much to assimilate) are curved or broken rods were cut oblique and discarded.
- Former piece must be smeared or covered with paraffin or paint.
- Some time later the plant can be transplanted into black plastic bags (polybags) and filled with soil mixed with enough fertilizer, watered every land keying.
- Seeds are large enough in plastic bags ready for market.


PLANTING MEDIA PROCESSING
Citrus grown in the fields of wetland / on land slope. If planted in a hill needs to be made sengkedan / terrace. Land that will ditamani cleaned from other plants or plant residues. Spacing varies for each type of citrus can be viewed at the following data:
1) Keprok and Siem: spacing of 5 x 5 m
2) Sweet: spacing of 7 x 7 m
3) citron (Citroen): spacing of 6 x 7 m
4) Lime: spacing of 4 x 4 m
5) Grape fruit: spacing of 8 x 8 m
6) Large: spacing (10-12) x (10-12) m
Planting hole only made on land that has not been processed and made 2 weeks prior to the ground. Land part of land separated from the topsoil (25 cm). Soil from the top layer is mixed with 20 kg of manure. After planting the land restored to its original place. Seedbed (guludan) measuring 1 x 1 x 1 m is only made if the oranges grown in paddy field soil.

PLANTING TECHNIQUES
Plant spacing varies from one other location. Orange grove in the lowlands (wetlands) distance using the earnings are relatively more rare than the orange orchard in the highlands, because 40% of wetlands used for the manufacture of necessity drainage and road construction. In Java used a spacing of 7 x 7 m or 8 x 8 meters. But the recommended spacing for tangerines is 6 x 6 meters. Spacing larger generally does not give effect to the plant except the low plant population per hectare. If a citrus plantation business is designed for a 10 year period then simply use the short spacing of eg 5 x 5 meters. If age over 10 years of production is still good and if the garden is still maintained thinning should be done by cutting down trees that are less productive. With a spacing of 5 x 5 meters then in 1 hectare will have 400 trees. Before planting, the planting hole that has been created is filled with manure / compost mixed with topsoil.
In this CCP Court assumed spacing lowland orange 5.2 x 5.2 meters, or 364 trees per hectare. While in the highlands of 5 x 4 m or 500 trees per hectare. Plant new citrus produce after the age of 3-4 years and peak
production at the age of 8-9 years.

Citrus seedlings can be planted in the rainy season or dry season if the available water to water, but should be planted at the beginning of the rainy season. Before being planted, needs to be done:
1) Reduction of excessive leaf and branch.
2) Reduction of root.
3) Setting the root position not to have folded.
After the seedlings out in the garden, watering taste and given a mulch of straw, coconut leaves or leaves that is free of disease in the vicinity. Place mulch such a way that does not touch the stem to avoid stem rot.
Before crop production and canopy shade each other, can be planted between the plants or plant kacang-kacangan/sayuran both sidelines in the form of rice. If the plant broke in the form of rice will be made so that the position guludan citrus crop is above the rice crop. It means so that the roots of citrus was not flooded air.Setelah canopy cover each other, interrupted plants replaced by grass / legume ground cover that also functions as an enhancer of nitrogen for citrus crops.

Plant Maintenance
The series of maintenance activities ranging from weeding, fertilizing, pruning, creation of a pillar, fruit thinning and pest and disease eradication. This maintenance activity is the main activity in citrus plantations.

1) stitching
Performed on plants that do not grow.

2) Weeding
Weeding is intended for the orange tree grow without interruption, which means good disturbance weed / peredu, parasites and other wild plants. Cleaning or weeding should be done at least twice a year, including one-time along with fertilization, others before harvesting.
Weeds cleaned in accordance with the frequency of growth, at the time of fertilization also done a good weeding penyiangan.Dengan expected given fertilizer effectively utilized for citrus trees.

3) Landfill soil
If planted in the soil cycle, to consider whether there is soil around the roots eroded. Addition of soil needs to be done if the base of the roots have started to appear.

4) Trimming
To be able to produce a good tree fertilizer besides carried out by well to do a good pruning. Trimming up to three years old plants intended for the establishment of branches and twigs are good, by selecting branches and twigs that exist and choose a healthy and strong. After more than three years old, the activities of pruning is done at the beginning of each rainy season.
Pruning aims to form a canopy of trees and remove diseased branches, dry and unproductive / undesirable. From the early buds which grow up leave 3-4 buds at uniform distances which will form the canopy of trees. On further growth, each branch has a branch or multiplication 3-4
While trimming the top to get a better fruit, pruning puncuk conducted at the end of the rainy season, hoping the tree will bloom in the dry season. Trees are flowering in the dry season will produce more fruit because of the movement of pollen is not impaired. And vice versa when the shoots are trimmed in the dry season the tree will bloom in the next rainy season. Because flowering in the rainy season generally rates will fall, which will menngakibatkan low fruit production.

Clipping scar covered with fungicide or wax to prevent the disease. We recommend that you first dip the pruning shears into Klorox / alcohol. Diseased twigs were burned or buried in the soil.

5) Fertilization
Giving the type and dose of fertilizer (g / plant) after planting are as follows:
a) 1 month: Urea = 100; ZA = 200; TSP = 25; ZK = 100; Dolomite = 20; P.kandang = 20 kg / plant.
b) 2 months: Urea = 200; ZA = 400; TSP = 50; ZK = 200; Dolomite = 40; P.kandang = 40 kg / plant.
c) 3 months: Urea = 300; ZA = 600; TSP = 75; ZK = 300; Dolomite = 60; P.kandang = 60 kg / plant.
d) 4 months: Urea = 400; ZA = 800; TSP = 100; ZK = 400; Dolomite = 80; P.kandang = 80 kg / plant.
e) 5 months: Urea = 500; ZA = 1000; TSP = 125; ZK = 500; Dolomite = 100; P.kandang = 100 kg / tan.
f) 6 months: Urea = 600; ZA = 1200; TSP = 150; ZK = 600; Dolomite = 120; P.kandang = 120 kg / tan.
g) 7 month: Urea = 700; ZA = 1400; TSP = 175; ZK = 700; Dolomite = 140; P.kandang = 140 kg / tan.;
h) 8 months: Urea = 800; ZA = 1600; TSP = 200; ZK = 800; Dolomite = 160; P.kandang = 160 kg / tan.
i)> 8 months: Urea> 1000; ZA = 2000; TSP = 200; ZK = 800; Dolomite = 200; P.kandang = 200 kg / tan.

FERTILIZER PLANT ORANGE GENERAL RECOMMENDATIONS FOR INDONESIAN REGION
This recommendation is not an absolute but adapted to soil conditions, because we realize that the state of soil in each every region is different. Fertilizer is also depending on the species / varieties of citrus crop itself, but this only as a reference only. may be useful:

Plant Age
(Years)
Gram Per Tree
Lapse of time of fertilizer
Total
Dung
(Kg / tree)
Urea
SP-36
KCL
0 - 1
40
25
10
Every 3 months
144
1
1 - 2
60
50
30
Every 3 months
276
2
2 - 3
145
70
55
Every 4 months
296
3
3 - 4
230
110
175
Every 6 months
520
4
4 - 5
285
140
220
Every 6 months
650
5
> 5
Based on Total Production Every 6 months
5

Fertilization for the cultivation of oranges per tree Siamese plants according to age:

Plant Age
(Years)
Dung
(Cans / year)
Urea
(Grams)
TSP
(Grams)
KCL
(Grams)
When planting
3
0 0 0
1
3 - 4
200 - 300 100 - 250 100 - 200
2
4
300 - 400 150 - 200 150 - 200
3
6
400 - 500 200 - 250 200 - 250
4
8
500 - 600 200 - 300 200 - 300
5
10
600 - 800 300 - 400 300 - 400
6
14
800 -1000 400 - 500 400 - 500
7
16
1000 - 1200 500 - 600 500 - 600
8
18
1200 - 1400 600 - 700 600 - 700
9 - etc
20
1400 - 1600 600 - 800 600 - 800

Data: Sower Self Reliance. Jakarta

Manure application made at the beginning of the rainy season, at the threshold limit of tree rings with the tip of the leaf (near the hair root), preferably with a circle dug as deep as approximately 30 cm by 20 cm wide. Fertilizer after being mixed inserted into a hole dug a hole and then closed again with soil. Fertilization is done first by combining all manure with urea fertilizer 1 / 3 part and the TSP and 1 / 3 KCl, 1 / 3 parts of urea are given immediately after flowering orange tree and 1 / 3 and TSP and 2 / 3 KCl given when the fruit begins to enlarge.

6) Irrigation and Watering
Watering should not inundate the stem roots. Plants irrigated at least once a week during the dry season. If the water is less available, the soil around the plant closed digemburkan and mulch.

7) Fruit Thinning
In a year where heavy fruiting orange trees, thinning should be done so that the tree is able to support growth and fruit weight and fruit quality maintained. fruit that is too dense will affect the final output, in addition to fruit that is too heavy will also affect the condition of the fruit the following season. Even the old orange trees under 4 years, if the fruit is too heavy will greatly affect the health and productivity of citrus trees in the future. Therefore there needs to be thinning the fruit. In the early production period (3 years) of fruit should only be left on the branches of the right-benarkuat and there are not too banyak.Buah disposed covering the fruit of the sick, who are not exposed to sunlight (in the shade of the leaves) and excess fruit in in a single stalk. Eliminate fruit at the end of the fruit in a single main stem there and leave only 2-3 fruit.

Good fruit is a fruit that grows normally, whose position is easy fruit exposed to sunlight, therefore the fruit contained in the protected branches need dijarangkan / removed, so as not to waste energy / nutrients that are absorbed by citrus trees.

8) Buffer
For citrus trees do not accept the burden was too heavy and broken at the time of fruition, then it should be a pillar of orange trees made of wood or this buffer bambu.Pemberian see if the branch or twig conditions ira do not think it strong enough to support the weight of the fruit then this treatment is needed. Buffer should be made in accordance with the four square circle branch that shall be supported. This means that the bigger the tree the greater the required buffer. Making this buffer would require a fee, but because the manufacturing can be done in stages can be met from materials found around the farm, would cost that counts is the cost of labor alone. However, if the materials to be used for the buffer must be purchased course there are additional buffer materials costs.

ORANGE CROP PEST AND DISEASE
Pest

1) Lice jump (D. citri.)
The part that is attacked is the stalk, leaf buds, shoots, young leaves.
Symptoms: kinky shoots, the plants die.
Control: use the insecticide active ingredient dimethoate (40 EC Roxion, Rogor 40 EC), endosulfan (Thiodan 3G, 35 Dekasulfan EC and 350 EC) and Monocrotophos (Azodrin 60 WSC). Spraying conducted prior to and during budding, Also remove the affected part.

2) Flea leaves (Toxoptera citridus aurantii, Aphis gossypii.)
The part that was attacked was the young shoots and flower.
Symptoms: leaf roll and lasting until the leaves mature.
Control: use of insecticides with the active ingredient Malathion (Gisonthion 50 EC), Methidathion (Supracide 40 EC), Diazinon (Basudin 60 EC), phosphamidon (Dimecron 50 SCW), Dimethoate (Perfecthion, Rogor 40 EC, Cygon).

3) Silkworm peliang leaves (Phyllocnistis citrella.)
The part that is attacked is the young leaves. Symptoms: transparent or silvery circular groove, buds / young leaves wrinkle, roll up, fell out. Control: spray insecticides with active ingredients Methidathion (Supracide 40 EC, 60 EC Basudin), Malathion (Gisonthion 50 EC, 50 WP) <Diazinon (Basazinon 45/30 EC). Then the leaves are picked and buried in the soil.

4) Mites (Tenuipalsus sp., Eriophyes sheldoni Tetranychus sp)
The part that is attacked is the stalk, leaves and fruit. Symptoms: keperakperakan or brown spots on fruit and yellow or brown spots on leaves. Control: spray insecticide propargite (ommittee), Cyhexation (Plictran), Dicofol (Kelthane), Oxythioquimox (Morestan 25 WP, 50 WP Dicarbam).

5) fruit Borer (Citripestis sagittiferella.)
The part that was attacked is the fruit. Symptoms: holes that emit latex. Control: Infected fruit picking and using insecticides. Methomyl (Lannate 25 WP, 24 Nudrin WSC), Methidathion (Supracide 40 EC),
are sprayed on fruits aged 2-5 weeks.

6) leaf-sucking lice (Helopeltis antonii.)
The part that was attacked Helopeltis antonii. Symptoms: blackish brown spots with lighter colored centers on young shoots and fruits, fruit spotting fluid disertaikeluarnya become necrotic. Control: spray insecticide Fenitrotionmothion (Sumicidine 50 EC), Fenithion (Lebaycid), methamidophos (Tamaron), Methomil (Lannate 25 WP).

7) Silkworm ulcer rate and fruit borer (Prays sp.)
The part that was attacked was the flower buds of sweet orange or grapefruit bes. Symptoms: former holes 0.3 to 0.5 centimeters in diameter, easily fall flowers, young fruit fall before dark. Control: use of insecticides with active ingredients Methomyl (Lannate 25 WP) and Methidathion (Supracide 40 EC). Then dispose of the attack.

8) Thrips (Scirtotfrips citri.)
The part that was attacked was the young stems and leaves. Symptoms: leaves thicken, the edge of the leaf curl upward at the tip of leaf buds become black, dry and fall, brown scar grayish sometimes accompanied nekrotis. Control: keep the plant canopy is not too tightly and measuk sunlight into the canopy, avoid using straw mulch. Then use insecticides contain active Difocol (Kelthane) or Z-propargite (ommittee) during germination.

9) Ticks dompolon (Planococcus citri.)
The part that is attacked is the fruit stalk. Symptoms: yellow beam, dry and fallen fruit. Control: use insektisda Methomyl (Lannate 25 WP), Triazophos (Fostathion 40 EC), Carbaryl (Sevin 85 S), Methidathion (Supracide 40 EC). Then prevent the arrival of ants can move lice.

10) The fruit flies (Dacus sp.)
The part that was attacked is near-ripe fruit. Symptoms: small hole in the middle, fall fruits, small maggots on the inside of the fruit. Control: use insecticide Fenthion (Lebaycid 550 EC), Dimethoathe (Roxion 40 EC, 40 EC Rogor) mixed with Methyl-Eugenol Pheromones Hydrolisate or protein.

11) Flea scales (Lepidosaphes Beckii Unaspis citri.)
The part that is attacked leaves, fruits and stems. Symptoms: yellow leaves, spotting khlorotis and autumn leaves. In the visible symptoms of severe attacks twigs and branches dry and cracked skin of the fruit fall. Control: use the pesticide Diazinon (Basudin 60 EC, 10 G, Basazinon 45/30 EC), phosphamidon (Dimecron 50 SCW), Dichlorophos (Nogos 50 EC), Methidhation (Supracide 40 EC).

12) snout beetle (Maeuterpes dentipes.)
The part that was attacked was the old leaves on the twigs or branches of the bottom. Symptoms: autumn leaves, young twigs sometimes die. Control: improve sanitation garden, reduce humidity roots. Then use the insecticide Carbaryl (Sevin 85 S) and Diazinon (Basudin 60 EC, 10 G).


Disease
1) CVPD

Cause: A bacterium like organism with leafhopper vector D. citri. Part of being attacked: the central cylinder (phloem) stem. Symptoms: leaf narrow, small, pointed, small fruit, acid, base of damaged seeds and orange fruit.
Control: use the plants healthy and free CVPD. In addition, the placement location of the garden of at least 5 km from the orange grove that was attacked CVPD. Use of insecticides for vector and consider a good garden sanitation.

2) Tristeza
Cause: Citrus tristeza virus by vector Toxoptera. Section who attacked sweet orange, lime, big and orange rootstock Japanese citroen. Symptoms: hollow stem, stiff leaf discoloration, leaf veins, stunted growth
Control: note the garden sanitation, destroy infected plants and vector control with insecticides Supracide or Cascade.

3) Woody gall (Vein Enation)
Cause: virus Citrus vein with vectors Toxoptera Enation citridus, Aphis gossypii. Part of being attacked: Orange juice, sweet, Siem, Rough lemon and Sour Orange.
Symptoms: irregular bulge bones scattered on the leaf at the leaf surface.
Control: use of virus-free eye patch and note the environmental sanitation.

4) Blendok
Cause: fungus Diplodia natalensis. The part that was attacked is a trunk or branch.
Symptoms: armpit skin gom Branch generate interest beetles, wood color so greyish, dry skin and flaking.
Control: infected branch cuts, the cut given karbolineum or copper fungicide. and the fungicide benomyl 2 times a year.

5) Dew flour
Cause: The fungus Odidium tingitanium. The part that was attacked is the leaves and young stems.
Symptoms: white powder on leaves and young stems.
Control: use fungicide Pyrazophos (Afugan) and Bupirimate (Nimrot 25 EC).

6) Scabies
Cause: The fungus Sphaceloma fawcetti. The part that is attacked is the leaves, stems or fruit.
Symptoms: tiny speck that turned into a cork clear yellow or orange.
Control: regular trimming. Then use Fungicide Dithiocarbamate / benomyl (Benlate).

7) Rotten fruit
Cause: Penicillium spp. Phytophtora citriphora, Botryodiplodia theobromae. The part that was attacked is the fruit.
Symptoms: wheat-flour are solid bluish green on the skin surface.
Control: avoid mechanical damage, dip the fruit into the hot water / fungicide benpmyl, pelilinan fruit and trimming the bottom of the tree.

8) root and stem rots
Cause: The fungus Phyrophthoranicotianae. The part that was attacked is the root and base of the stem and leaves at the end of the branches are yellow.
Symptoms: no fresh shoots, dried plants. Control: treatment and good irrigation, soil sterilization at the time of planting, create a patch to a minimum height of 20 cm from soil surface.

9) The fruit fall prematurely
Cause: The fungus Fusarium sp. Colletotrichum sp. Alternaria sp. Parts attacked: fruit and flowers
Symptoms: two-four weeks prior to harvest fruit fall.
Control: Fungicides benomyl (Benlate) or Caprafol.

10) Mushroom upas
Cause: Upasia salmonicolor. The part that was attacked was the stem.
Symptoms: transverse cracks on the trunk and out gom, dry and tough stems exfoliated. Control: infected skin exfoliated and disaput carbolineum fungicide. Then cut an infected branch.

11) Cancer
Cause: The bacterium Xanthomonas campestris Cv. Citri. The part that was attacked is a leaf, stem, fruit.
Symptom: small patches of dark green or yellow along the edges, wound enlarged and looks like cork burst
with a diameter of 3-5 mm.
Control: Fungicides such as porridge Bordeaux Cu, Copper oxychlorida. In addition, to prevent worm attacks peliang by dipping the leaves are attached to the eye in 1,000 ppm streptomycin
for 1 hour.

In general, some way of pest control (OPT), which can be integrated are:
1. How to cultivation, which include resistance varieties, destruction of infected plants and a source of disease, crop edge that serves as a trap for pests and also become home to a natural enemy, sanitation, irrigation and good drainage and fertilizing accordingly.
2. Biological means, by utilizing the many natural enemies can be found in nature.
3. Mechanical way, by capturing, destroying pests mechanically.
4. How the rules, by quarantine and regulations on plant traffic.
5. Chemical way, this way the last choice in pest control due to bad risk to human safety and environmental sustainability.


HARVEST
Characteristics and Harvest Time
Citrus fruit is harvested at optimal cooking time, usually between the ages of 28-36 weeks, depending on the species / varieties. For Tangerine can be harvested at the age of 6-8 months after the flowers bloom.
At harvest, physical characteristics:
1. Skin yellowish fruit (orange);
2. The fruit is not too hard if it is held;
3. The bottom of the fruit a bit tender and when dijentik with no loud sounds finger again.

How to Harvest
Fruit are picked by using pruning shears.


Estimated Production
On average, each tree can produce 300-400 fruits per year, sometimes up to 500 fruits per year. Citrus production in Indonesia of about 5.1 tons / ha is still under production in subtropical countries that can reach 40 tons / ha.


Postharvest
Collection

In the garden, the fruit gathered in the shade and clean. Separate low-quality fruit, bruised and dispose of damaged fruit. Sorting is based on the diameter and weight of the fruit which usually consists of 4 classes. Grade A is the fruit with the largest diameter and weight while the class D has the smallest diameter and weight.

Sorting and classification
After the fruits are picked and collected, then the fruit sorted / separated from rotten fruit. Then the citrus fruit is classified according to the size and types.

Storage
To save the citrus fruit, use a clean and healthy place with room temperature 80-10 degrees C.

Packaging
Before shipping, the fruit is packed in bamboo baskets / thick wood is not too heavy to local needs and boxes for export. Packing should not be too dense for the fruit is not damaged. Fruit was structured so that in between the citrus fruit is free air space but the fruit can not be moved. Containers for packing oranges capacity of 50-60 kg.

Agribusiness Opportunity Overview
Overseas citrus fruits is a commodity that is very important with high economic value. The tendency of international demand for fruits including oranges will increase, other than that estimated domestic market demand will increase by 10% per year.
Citrus consumption in Indonesia is only 2.7 kg / person / year, still far from ideal consumption of 6.4 kg / person / year. With ideal consumption, required 1.3 million tons of oranges per year, whereas citrus production in 1996 only 793,810 tons / year yangsaat is not moving much. For that still required the addition of 50 129 ha of citrus orchard.

Prospect citrus agribusiness in Indonesia, the better because of agricultural land for fruit covering an area of millions of hectares and the potential increase in orange production is also high because during the orange groves are generally cultivated traditionally. Additionally, citrus fruits is a commodity whose price is relatively stable.


STANDARD PRODUCTION
Scope

Standard production includes: quality requirements, how to test the quality, the way sampling and how the packaging.

Description
Tangerine is a citrus fruit from tangerine (Citrus reticulata Lour) are easy to peel skin, the situation is quite old, whole fresh and clean.

Classification and Quality Standards
Tangerine classified into 4 (four), size of class A, B, C and D, based on the weight of each fruit, each of which were classified into 2 (two) types of quality, namely Quality I and Quality II.
Class D: diameter of 7.1 cm or 151 grams / fruit.
Class B: diameter from 6.1 to 7.0 cm or 101-150 g / fruit
Class C: 5.1 to 6.0 cm in diameter or 51-100 g / fruit
Class D: diameter of 4.0 to 5.0 cm or 50 grams / fruit

The tangerine fruit quality requirements are as follows:
1) Keasamaan nature of varieties: Uniforms, organoleptic test method
2) Level aging: Old, not overcooked, way sensory test
3) Hardness: Quite hard, organoleptic test method
4) Size: Less uniform, how to test SP-SMP-309-1981
5) Damage,% (Qty / Qty): 50-10 max, how to test SP-SMP-310-1981
6) Dirt: free, free, organoleptic test method
7) Rot% (Qty / Qty): maks.1-2, how to test SP-SMP-311-1981


Packaging
Citrus fruit is packed with wooden crates / other materials consistent with maximum net weight 30 kg. Outer packaging label that reads as follows: name of goods, class size, the type of quality, name / code of the company, net weight, country / place of destination, the results of Indonesia, the region of origin.


Greetings farmer
abstracted by

Dwi Hartoyo, SP

REFERENCES
http://teknis-budidaya.blogspot.com/2007/10/budidaya-jeruk.html
http://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jeruk
http://infopekalongan.com/content/view/63/1/
http://wongtaniku.wordpress.com/2009/01/09/budidaya-jeruk/
http://www.bi.go.id/web/id/DIBI/Info_Pengusaha/Kalkulasi_Biaya/Tanaman_Pangan/jeruk_keprok.htm
http://www.docstoc.com/docs/19431998/Budidaya-jeruk
http://www.2dix.com/pdf/budidaya-jeruk-pdf.php
http://go-organik-2010.blogspot.com/2008/08/teknis-budidaya-jeruk.html
http://cetak.bangkapos.com/opini/read/691.html
http://www.beritajatim.com/detailnews.php/1/Ekonomi/2010-07-16/70234/
http://www.agromedia.net/Info/teknik-tepat-budi-daya-jeruk.html
http://flobamor.com/forum/hewan-dan-tumbuhan/9711-budidaya-perkebunan-tanaman-jeruk.html?langid=1
http://www.ristek.go.id (Menegristek Deputy Office for Administrative Affairs and Correctional Science and Technology Building II BPPT 6th Floor, Jl. MH Thamrin 8 Jakarta 10 340)
Installation Research and Assessment of Agricultural Technology Denpasar Jl. By Pass Ngurah Rai PO Box 3480, Denpasar Bali

 

 

 

 

 

 

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